3rd Home Rule Bill 1912.
The Third Home Rule Bill was eventually passed in 1912 which mean it would become law in 1914, because veto was suspended it would be passed even if the House of Lords didn't approve. Asquith who was a conservative was the one who managed to pass it after two failed attempts from Gladstone in 1886 and 1893
3rd Home Rule Bill April 1912
Terms of Bill
- 42 Irish MPs in Westminster Imperial Parliament
- Two Chamber Irish Assembly in Dublin - 40 members of the senate, 162 members of the lower house
- Irish could have own taxes and vary the imperial (British) taxes.
- No separate provision for Ulster
When it was passed
- Passed in 1912, suspended for 2 years so would be put into action in 1914
Ulster Resistance to Home Rule
Edward Carson + The Ulster Unionist Party.
Tory party led by Andrew Bonar Law - ' we mean to support to the end the loyal minority in Ireland'
8th September 1912Solemn League and Covenant, 2
500,000 Ulster-men and women signed it, some signed it in their blood and threatened to establish a provisional government in Ulster, obvious strong opposition to Home Rule. The signing of the Solemn Covenant league became known as ULSTER DAY.
UVF (Ulster Volunteer Force)
90,000 men who had signed the covenant, headed by Sir George Richardson, were determined to risk any attempt to force Home Rule on Ulster and Asquith had not banned them yet.
Sinn Fein and the Irish Volunteers Nov 1914
- Irish Volunteers established in Dublin
- May 1914 -Volunteers = 75,000 +
- they smuggled 1,500 rifles and 45,000 rounds of ammunition in, Howth Harbor in July 1914
- 1914 = the establishment of the IRA as a nationalist Army - led by James Larkin
- For Asquith this is a dilemma because if he delays Home Rule he will lose Irish support, if he forces Home Rule through, Ulster will Resist.
Problems of Home Rule Bill
- Curragh mutiny In March 1914, 57 officers of the 3rd Cavalry Brigade, stationed at Curragh near Dublin, informed the commander in chief that they would accept dismiss rather than help to impose the Irish Home Rule Bill on Ulster. They succeeded in obtaining a written assurance that they would not be expected to do this.
- 57/70 officers said they would prefer to resign their commissions in the Army than go north and enforce Home Rule on Ulster
- indicated the strength of Anti-Home Rule feelings of many Ulster-men in the British Army.
- Fear of Civil war Home rule was passed , Edward Carson had threatened to take over the Government of Ulster if Home Rule succeeded and House of lords suggested excluding Ulster from Home Rule.
- Outbreak of WW1 september 1914 meant that even though Home rule Bill had finally been passed it was largely ignored.
Ulster's Opposition to Home Rule.
- 9 county Ulster- Londonderry,Antrim,Down Monogha,Cavan,Fermanagh,Tyrone, Armagh,Donegal. They thought Home Rule would threaten their way of life.
- Protestants = minority in ireland but a majority in Ulster, there was a fear that 'HOME RULE IS ROME RULE', these sectarian differences meant that they opposed home rulke because the protestant ulster men were British and therefore identified with Britain
- Ulster was far more prosperous than the rest of ireland and believed that it benefited economically from unification with Britain. There was a fear that a Dublin parliament would threaten this prosperity by introducig protective duties against british goods.
- during C19 Irish Nationalism had become identified by catholicism and support with the union with Ulster protestantism.
- Tory Party Supported Ulster i.e Lord Randolph Churchill ' The Orange card is the card to play' it was a way for the Tory party to oppose Liberals and Tory party became known as the Conservative and Unionist party.