The Types of rock
Metamorphic- This means change. This rock was another type of rock before becoming this one. Permeable/Impermiable
Igneous- Made from magma which is molten rock. When it cools down it becomes an igneous rock. It has tiny crystals in it. Impermeable.
Sedimentry- This rock is made out of sediments that have been heatened up and compacted with a lot of pressure. Fossils are only found in sedimentry rocks. It has rounded grains. Permeable.
How a fossil is formed
- A dinosaur dies and is covered by sand and mud.
- It is covered by more sediment which stops the oxygen from being able to get in which stops it from decaying.
- After millions of years the heat and pressure turns it into a sedimentry rock.
- An archeologist finds it and takes it to a museum. All that is left is an imprint of the dead animal.
How oil is formed
Crude oil is a smelly, yellow-to-black liquid and is usually found in underground areas called reservoirs. Scientists and engineers explore a chosen area by studying rock samples from the earth. Measurements are taken, and, if the site seems promising, drilling begins. Above the hole, a structure called a 'derrick' is built to house the tools and pipes going into the well. When finished, the drilled well will bring a steady flow of oil to the surface. Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment before the dinosaurs. Over the years, the remains were covered by layers of mud. Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth."
How Coal is formed
Coal is a non-renewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form. That means what is in the ground now is all there is and we can’t realistically make more.
The energy in coal comes from energy that was stored in giant plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swamp forests, even before the dinosaurs! When these giant plants and ferns died, they formed layers at the bottom of the swamps.
Water and dirt began to pile up on top of the dead plant remains. Over thousands of years pressure and heat would build up on top of the plant remains, undergoing chemical and physical changes and pushing out the oxygen, turning these remains into what we call coal.
Fossil- A dead animal which was presurved in a sedimentry rock.
Igneous- A rock type made from magma that has been cooled down.
Metamorphic- A rock made from sedimentry or igneous rock as it had extra heat and or pressure applied.
Non- Renewable- A form of energy which cannot be produced once it has run out as it takes millions of years to form. EG. Coal and Oil.
Sedimentry- A rock type created from sediment which had been heated up and with pressure applied.