• Created by: alex
  • Created on: 10-05-11 17:44


  • reactant
  • solvent
  • transport
  • temperature control

The attraction between water molecules is called hydrogen bonding.

Water has a high specific water capacity as the hydrogen bonds can absorb a lot of energy. The bonds are also hard to break.

Hydrogen atoms are postively charged - Oxygen atoms are negative.

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                           amino acid - dipeptide - polypeptide - protein

-made up of one or more polypeptides.

-the amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds 

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Structural Levels

Primary Structure (peptide bonds)

  • a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

Secondary Structure (hydrogen bonds)

  • hydrogen bonds form between amino acids to make it coil
  • alpha helix or beta pleated sheet

Tertiary Structure

  • coiled further
  • more bonds form
  • for proteins from a single polypeptide structure this is the final structure.
  • ionic interactions - attractions between charges on parts of the molecule
  • disulfide bonds - between custeine

Quaternary Structure (all bonds)

  • several polypeptide chains held together by bonds
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  • strong fibrous protein for supportive tissues in animals
  • three polypeptide chains
  • strong triple helix
  • covalent bonds interlinking chains
  • minerals bind to the helix to increase its rigidity



  • globular protein
  • iron containing heam group binds to oxygen
  • transports O2 in the blood
  • curled structure with a hydrophilic outside - soluble.
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