Monserrat is a small island in the Caribbean Sea
Eruption: June 25th 1997
- 70mph pyroclastic flow (Destroyed 20 villages and two thirds of homes)
- Half of the island became an exclusion zone
- Ash cloud spread 10 miles into the air and 100 metres into the sea
- Beat the cooling affect of the sea water for 100 metres
- 19 killed and 7 injured
- Destructive Plate Margin (Atlantic and Caribbean Plates)
- 8000 of the 12000 inhabitants left the island
- Schools, Hospitals, the Airport and Port have been destroyed ruining the tourism industry
Global Climate Change Impacts
Tambora is an active stratovolcano on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia.
- 92000 died
- Europe became cold and rainy with floods, and Ash fell in the snow
- Africa experienced heavy monsoons and cold weather causing rice production to fall
- China suffered famine
- 200000 Europeans died from typhus and famine
South Asia and Carlisle Floods (LIC - HIC)
How chances of flooding are increased:
- More rainfall, Urbanisation (Impermeable Materials), Saturated Grounds, Melting Snow
Flooding Effects and how they differ from LIC to HIC:
- South Asia (River Brahmaputra and Ganhes): 2000+ deaths, 25 million made homeless, factories closed and livestock killed, 112000 homes destroyed, 100000 caught water bourne diseases (eg, Diarrhoea) , Many farmers became unemployed
- Carlisle (River Eden): 3 deaths, 3000 made homeless, 350 business shut down, Roads damanged, Rivers polluted, Stress related illnesses increased, 3000 jobs became at risk
- South Asia: Many didnt escape and transport links were blocked, Other governments and charities sent food, water and medical aid.
- Carlisle: People evacuated, Reception area open for evacuees, Temp Acommodation provided.
Coastal Management Strategies
- Village population of 850
- Cliffs defended in 1958 which reduced errosion by 50cm per year
- Houses worth £80000 have decreased to just £1
- Sea defences would cost £4 million for 500 metres of protection
- 26 houses have already been washed away
- Defences would cost more than the village so isn't worth it
Camden and Germany Recycling
Camden (London) and Germany have incredibly good recycling systems that have been put in place.
- 3 Refuse collections per week
- Regis Road Centre recycle bigger items for free (Upgraded in 2007)
- Bulky Items and white goods can be left on the road side and are collected by the council 3 times a year
- Recycling Advisors go around local schools and communities
- 27% of waste recycled in 2007 compared with 17% in 2003
- Green Dot Scheme introduced - bottles and cans are taken back to shops to be reused
- 75% of waste recycled, with only 1% of waste going to lanfill (only 160 landfill sites now, in 1970 there were about 50000)
- Two thirds of recycling is shipped abroad as so much is collected £2.5 million is spent per year in recycling (Including Nucelar and Toxic Waste)
- 68 incincerators which are all clean. Electricity is generated by burning waste.
Tar/Oil Sands in Canada
Effects of Non-renewable energy sources on local and national environments
Oil is mixed up with sands or clay and has to be mined. Found in Northern Alberta, Canada.
- Energy Intensive (Large trucks used to mine the sands)
- Large amounts of greenhouse gases produced
- 2 tonnes of mined tar sands only produces one barrel of oil. Leaves huge holes in the ground, scarring the landscape with toxic waste ponds and pipes.
- 470km squared of forest removed in 2010.
- Existing oil fields are running out of oil
- Oil from Canada is more reliable for the USA than the Middle East
- By 2030, 16% of North Americas oil demands could be met by oil sands. Secure source.
- Provides oil until renewable sources can be developed - takes time and money
- Land could eventually recover
- 20% of Canadas exports in 2007 was produced by Oil Sands.
Offshore Wind Farms (UK)
The effects of a renewable energy source on the environment and people
- Reduces UK's Carbin Footprint
- Zero emmisons while operating
- Creation of jobs
- No NIMBYs as out at sea
- By 2020 15% of the UKs energy will come from wind power
- Becoming a cheaper way of generating energy
- Migrating sea birds can be affected (Some wind farms have been rejected due to this, eg. Docking Shoal in Lincolnshire)
- Visual Pollution
- Expensive to construct (One large turbine costs £3 million)
- Expensive to transmit the electricity ashore
- Hydraulic hammers which are used to help prepare the offshore platforms are noisy and can harm wildlife
Heavy rainfall on the 9th April 1998 caused the river to overflow, requiring a £6.8 million project to protect the most affected parts of Northampton.
Causes and Effects:
- Torrential downfall and thunderstorms prior to flooding causing saturated ground
- 3x the average monthly amount of rainfall
- No effective warning system to predict or warn of flooding
- Two deaths and 1500 evacuees
- £350 million worth of damage
- Sewage caused serious health risk
- 2500 properties affected and 5000 cars written off
- Flood retention reservoir built to hold excess water
- Embankments built 10m away from river for larger water holding. Tress were added to improve visuals and hold soil together.
- 4m fllood walls built by railway station
- Flood warning sirens and a 2 hour warning system installed by environment agency
Walton-on-the-Naze has a population of 12000.
- LSD moves sand along the coastline from South to North
- In 1998, £167,000 for 300 tonnes of Leicester Granite Rip-Rap was placed around the Tower breakwater. This slowed down erosion but hasn't stopped it.
- Cliffs suffer from slumping making the defence of the area even more complex.
- Soft rock types are: London Clay and Red Crag. (Easily erroded)
- In 1977, on the Southern Part of the coastline, defences were installed such as: a seawall, breakwaters, groynes and the cliff was regraded,
- In 1999, the northern part of the coastline was replenished with sand and gravel from Harwhich Harbour