Vision 3

  • Created by: becky_99
  • Created on: 26-12-19 22:38


Perception - processing stimuli from the self or environment.

Cognition - the mental process by which external or internal input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.

  • Involves a variety of functions such as attention, memory processing, decision-making, reasoning, problem-solving, imaging, planning and executing actions

Motor behaviour - the planning and execution of actions.

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Response activation theory

"Response activation" theory predicts that non-target objects activate actions.

Condition 1: participants were able to inhibit the visual processing of the non-target object in the slow response time condition. This resulted in net response inhibition, causing the trajectory of the movement to veer away from the non-target.

Condition 2: in the quick response time condition, however, participants did not have enough time to inhibit the target object. This resulted in a net activation of the action that veered towards the non-target object.

(Welsh & Elliot, 2004).

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Navarro, Van der Kamp, Ranwaud & Savelsbergh (2013

Task - participants required to aim penalty kick to one of two target locations.

60 trials:

  • 20 trials 'no goalkeeper'
  • 20 trials 'goalkeeper'
  • 20 trials 'knowledgeable goalkeeper'


  • Performance: hits, misses, failures
  • Accuracy: absolute variability from target centre and goal centre
  • Variability: variable error from target centre and goal centre
  • Ball speed: distance to goal (m) / foot contact to goal contact time (s)
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Navarro, Van der Kamp, Ranwaud & Savelsbergh (2013

Questions to think about:

Results: was performance influenced by the presence of the goalkeeper?

Discussion: do the authors relate their results to any theories?

  • Response activation theory (Welsh & Elliot, 2004)
  • Ironic effects theory (Wegner, 1994)

Do the authors make any applied recommendations?

  • Practice in the presence of a goalkeeper
  • Optimise gaze control during practice
  • Longer waiting time before executing the penalty (Jordet et al., 2009)
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Visual areas of the brain


  • Simple object orientations and shapes
  • Global organisations of scenes
  • Main connection from the LGN of the thalamus


  • Receives connections from V1
  • Neurons in this region respond to slightly more complex properties such as contours and figure-ground segregation
  • Also has connections to dorsal and ventral pathways


  • Responsible for processing complex combinations of visual stimuli
  • Contains stronger connections to dorsal and ventral pathways and weaker connections from V1
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Visual areas of the brain


  • Encodes stimulus saliency and colour
  • Also has shown to be more responsive to selective attention than other areas (Moran & Desimone, 1985)


  • Located along the ventral pathway in the temporal lobe
  • Contains neurons that are responsive to the direction of motion
  • Also contains strong connections to other cortical areas
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Object perception

Step 1: object segregation - i.e. figuring out what, in a complex scene, are the individual objects.

Step 2: object recognition - mapping the object to something that is already known.

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Gestalt principles of perceptual organisation

Laws of:

  • Figure-ground segregation
  • Similarity
  • Proximity
  • Closure
  • Continuation
  • Common fate
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Object segregation

Object segregation:

  • Contours and grouping cues
  • Occurs largely automatically

Once you have performed object segregation and can see the objects as distinct from the background and other subjects, does that mean you have recognised it?

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Binocular disparity

  • The two eyes have a slightly different image of the world on the retina (retinal disparity)
  • The close of an object is to you, the greater the difference in the two images
  • The brain can use this retinal disparity information to calculate how close the object is to you
  • This information becomes less effective as objects get further away; it is primarily useful for objects within arm's distance
  • The ability to use binocular disparity develops in children by about 2 years of age and if your eyes do not work together properly during that time period, then binocular disparity will not develop
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Monocular depth cues

  • Occlusion
  • Shading
  • Shadows
  • Aerial perspective
  • Linear perspective
  • Height in plane
  • Familiar size
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