Achilles tendonitis is inflammation of the achilles tendon
which is one of the larger tendon in the body at between 15 to 20 centimetres
It originates from the musculo-tendinous junction of the calf muscles and inserts in to the posterior calcaneus the bone at back of foot.
It is separated from the calcaneus by the retro calcaneus bursa, a sac of fluid, and then separated from the skin from the sub calcaneus bursa
It is cause by repetitive contractions of the calf muscles, improper footwear and excessive pronation.
Some symptoms can be pain, tenderness and inflammation of the achilles.You would treat achilles tendonitis by resting it and then using heat and massage to promotes blood flow and healing
Rehab would be gentle stretching and strengthening of the achiilles. This could be achieved by using such stretches ad heal raises, pike holds and step holds.
Anterior shin pain (shin splints)
The tibialis anterior muscle originates from the lateral condyle of the tibia (just under knee) and inserts into the medial cuneiform bone at the top of foot.
The tibialis anterior is responable for dorsiflexing and inverting the foot
anteriror shin pain is caused by irritation of the tendons and overuse of the leg
some symptoms can be a dull aching pain and shooting pains up the shin.
Shin splints can lead to compartment syndrome which is chronic
To treat shin splints you would use Ricer, heat and massage.
Rehab could involve swimming or stationary cycling as they are non weight baring activities. To stop shin splints from reoccuring patients should strengthen the lower leg muscles.
Illiotibial band syndrome
Illiotibial band syndrome is sually seen in runners and cyclists
it is attached to the iliac crest at the top of the hip and runs all the way down the leg and inserts into to gerdys tubercle on the lateral proximal tibia. It also blends with the Gluteus Maximus and the tensor fasica latae. This syndrome is caused by irritation and friction of the IT band over the greater trochanter at the hip joint and the lateral condyle at the knee joint.
It is very painful and can lead to bursitis which is inflammation of the bursa.
this would be treated by RICER, as well as heat and massage.
Rehab would include such exercises as squats, hip raises and cycling on the stationary bike.
Patella tendonitis is most commonly found in people who play jumping sports such as basketball and volleyball.
It affects the quadriceps tendon because it attaches to the superior pole of the patella and the patella ligament. 10% of pain is found above the knee and 90% found under the knee. it is different to runners knee as that is more patella femoral syndrome.
It can be caused by repetitive stress and pressure on the patella.
Symptoms are pain, inflammation and mild swelling
you would treat it using RICER
Wait 12 weeks and then use eccentric strength training including leg presses, leg extension and squats, this will strengthen the hamstrings and calves which in turn will relieve pressure from the knee. a support strap should be worn below the knee when returning to activity.
Tendonitis is inflammation of the tendon and Tenosynovitis is inflammation of the tendon sheath
Glenohumeral joint dislocation (shoulder dislocati
Glenohumeral joint dislocation happens when the humerus is torn free from the shoulder blade or scapular during abduction and external rotation
Anterior dislocation is most common which is where the anterior capsule and inferior glenhumeral ligament are torn free from the bone.
Dislocation causes tearing of the shoulder ligaments therefore the shoulder becomes less stable
The dislocation is caused by violent contact with a person or an object
This would be severely painful and there would be irregular contours in the deltoid muscles.
Treatment would involve realignment and immobilisation.
Rehab could involve prolotherapy which is an alternative to surgery where you get given injections into the anterior capsule and middle/inferior glenohumeral ligaments. this would give better pain relief and a speeder return to activity
Triceps dips, press ups and light weights could be used to strengthen the shoulder muscles to stop dislocations from recurring