US Relations with Europe

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  • The Soviets supported Communism in Greece.
  • By February 1947, Britain could no longer support Greece.
  • In March, the Truman Doctrine was announced. It must be the policy of the US " support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure."
  • The US became the 'policeman of the world.'
  • Communism was stopped in Greece with the help of $400,000,000 US aid. 
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The Marshall Plan

  • Announced in 1947. 
  • The plan didn't apply to Eastern European nations as they'd have to open up their economies to capitalism.
  • Churchill called it "the most unselfish act in history."
  • The USSR responded with the creation of the Cominform and COMECON.
  • COMECON was set up in January 1949. In 1958, China, North Korea, North Vietnam and Mongolia intergrated their economies with COMECON.
  • The USSR didn't have the resources to maintain COMECON, and it contributed to their downfall. 
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Germany and NATO

  • In 1948, the Brussels Pact established the Western EU
  • The US saw the WEU as 'too European' and set up NATO in April 1949.
  • 13 countries joined NATO initially. The USSR thought it contravened the principles of the UN as more US troops would be stationed in Europe.
  • In 1952, the General Treaty established the EDC, recognising the FRG's sovereignty. The French were concerned about German power and negotations broke down. Therefore, Germany was admitted to the Brussels Pact and was able to rearm.
  • In 1955, the FRG joined NATO. 
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The Berlin Crisis

  • The West wanted a strong Germany as a buffer to the USSR.
  • The West got Marshall Aid, the East suffered.
  • 1947-8: The 3 Western zones united economically and the Deutschmark was introduced. 
  • June 1948: Stalin blockaded Berlin.
  • The West organised an air lift. Supplies for over 2 million Berliners were flown into the city. 
  • 1949: the blockade ended and the 3 Western zones united to form the FRG.
  • The Berlin crisis led to the formation of NATO.
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The "Special Relationship" and the US as a Superpo

  • After WW2, there was a power vacuum in Europe that the US hoped to fill. Britain was politically stable and so was a good country to form a relationship with.
  • After WW2, the US owned 2/3 of the world's gold stocks and 1/2 of the world's manufacturing capability.
  • US Federal Revenue was $51 billion per year.
  • The strength of their economy allowed the US to develop their nuclear technology and deploy large military force.
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US World Police: Korea

  • June 1950: North Korea invaded South Korea. 
  • Truman reacted by militarising Containmaint. He said the US "...will continue to uphold the rule of law."
  • November: China entered the war. Any invasion of China would move US policy away from Containment, so Truman withdrew.
  • 1953: Stalin's death accelerated the end of the war. There was a ceasefire and the 38th parallel was agreed as a border.
  • The war confirmed the rise of monolithic Communism.
  • The Sino-Soviet alliance developed, though it was a victory for Containment. NATO now made sense in Asia.
  • It paved the way for German rearmament.
  • The Cold war was globalised and nuclear tech was developed.
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