Factors that affect hazardous activity
- Population density
- Level of development
- Preparation and awareness
- Boundary type
- Magma type
- Depth of focus/ epicentre
Categories for impacts
In general event occurring in less developed countries have a higher social impact than events in MEDCs however these events have a higher economic impact due to the level of development and the sector of employment focused upon.
Case studies to use
- Japanese earthquake
- Asian Tsunami
- Mauna Loa
- Eyjafjallajokull and Grimsvotn volcanic eruptions
- Mount Merapi
- Mt Etna
- Magnitude: 9.0
- Depth of focus: 32km
- Time: 14.46
- Plate boundary: destructive
- Level of development: MEDC
- Population density: 337.13
- 14,998 deaths; out of these deaths 92% of casualties died by drowning; proving that although Japan was prepared for the earthquake they had not sufficiently prepared for the subsequent tsunami.
- 5,297 injured
- 9,853 missing
- 45,700 buildings destroyed
- 4 passenger trains disappeared
- Immediately after the disaster 1.5 million houses were left without water
- According to TEP around 4.4 million people were left without electricity
- There were 300,000 refugees in the Tohoku region.
- Industrial production stopped
- Estimated cost of rebuilding $122 billion
- Damaged area; Tohoku region accounts for 8% of Japan’s GDP
- Damage to fishing industry that is significant for employment in the area; $5 billion and 90% of 29,000 fishing boats deemed un-usable
Depth of focus: 13km
Plate boundary: Conservative
Level of development: LEDC
Population density: 367.14
Social and economic impacts in haiti
- Estimated 3 million affected by the quake
- 222,570 deaths
- Displaced 1.3 million people
- 97,294 buildings destroyed
- Haitian prison destroyed; almost all of the 4,000 inmates escaped; posing a great security risk to all those affected
- Estimated economic losses are 20%-100% of GDP of Haiti
- Estimated that it will cost $8.5 billion in damage to Haiti’s economy.
- The earthquake made the country’s GDP contact by 5.1% in 2010
- Water borne illnesses were and still are a huge problem, 5,000 people have died since the catastrophe due to cholera.
- According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the biggest issue is the building waste; some 40 to 50 percent of the buildings fell in Port-au-Prince and nearby towns
The impacts from this tectonic event were significant; when reviewing the Degg Disaster model the earthquake had very high impacts because the physical event met a very vulnerable population whose capacity to cope was low because of extreme poverty within the country; the lack of development was a major factor in this earthquake because the secondary impacts such as death from cholera are so high due to a lack of healthcare provision within the country.
Japan’s earthquake had a lower impact due to its level of development and if the Haitian earthquake had occurred in Japan the impact would’ve been a lot less due to the infrastructure that would’ve have been present in a high income country such as Japan, furthermore the subsequent issue of water borne disease would’ve have been a lot lower due to a better provision of healthcare.