Psychology Unit 1 Memory

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  • Unit 1   Memory
    • Key Terms
      • Encoding - Changing info so it can be stored
      • Storage - Holding info in memory system
      • Retrieval - Recovering info from storage
      • Multi-store - Idea that info passes through series of memory stores
        • Sensory store- Holds info from senses.
        • Short term store - Around 7 chunks of info VERY short period of time.
        • Long-term store - Unlimited amount for very long time
      • Reconstructive memory - Altering info so it makes sense to us.
      • Levels of processing - The depth indo looking at.
        • Semantic - Meaning
        • Phonetic - Sound
        • Structural - Physical appearance
      • Anterograde amnesia - Unable to recall new info after accident.
      • Retrograde amnesia - Loss of memory for things before
    • Studies
      • Multi-store
        • Peterson Peterson - See if rehearsal necessary to hold info in short-term store. Pps given 3 letters + quickly had to count down in 3's (prevent rehearsal) Then recall. Forgotten most after 18 secs. We cant hold info in STS unless rehearsed.
          • Lacks ecological validity!
        • Murdock - Prove the multi-store memory. Pps given list of words for 2 secs per word. They could recall in any order. The words at the end recalled first and better then the first words also recalled better than the middle. Proves difference with LTS and STS.
          • Recency effect - Info received later recalled better than earlier info
          • Primacy effect - First info received recalled better than last
          • Lacks ecological validity!
      • Reconstructive memory
        • Bartlett - See if unfam info would be remembered and altered. Pps read story 'War of the ghosts' Native American Legend... Later recalled story over following weeks.. Pps altered info to make sense to them, each time they changed it more... Memory is influence by our own beliefs.
          • Hard to measure accuracy! Not every day experiences!
      • Wynn and Logie - Like Bartlett but familiar info. 1st week of uni had to recall it... It remained the same constantly every time they recalled it. Familiar events will not change over time.
        • Could be a lie... Relevant to real life though!
          • P/A- Explains why 2 people can believe the same thing in different ways. Must be careful when listening to eyewitness accounts.
      • Levels of processing
        • Craik and lockhart- Type of question about the word will have an effect on the number words recalled... Pps given list of words and asked q's about them... yes/no. Included structural, phonetic and semantic. 70% semantic, 35%phonetic and 15% structural. The more deeply info processed the more likely it'll be remembered
          • Doesn't explain why it helps memory. Deeper= more time and more effort. Lacks ecological validity
          • P/A - Would improve study skills. Use semantic!
      • Forgetting
        • Interference
          • Underwood and postman - New learning interferes with old. Group A- learn 1 list of words then learn a second BUT group B- learnt only 1st.. B recalled more accurately and more. New learning will cause people to forget and decrease accuracy.
            • Retroactive interference- When new interferes with old.
            • Proactive interference - Old learning interferes with new.
            • P/A - Better study habits; try avoiding two subjects that are similar per night when revising.
          • Context
            • Godden and baddeley - Learn and tested in same environment recall better?G1- UNDER UNDER G2- UNDER SHORE G3-SHORE UNDER G4- SHORE SHORE...both group 1 and 3 recalled more then the others (40% more).Recall is better in same context.
              • Exams in same room as revising can make it better.
        • Milner et al and Russell and Nathan.
      • Eyewitness testimony
        • Leading questions...
          • Loftus and Palmer: See e if questions affect accuracy of recall. Pps shown car accidents... asked how fast the car was going when it 'hit' and 'smashed' the other car? Those who heard smashed gave faster speeds. Leading q's reduce accuracy of recall.
        • Unfamiliar faces
          • Bruce and Young - See if familiarity helps identifying people. Psychological lecturers caught on CCTV. Lecturer students identified more correct than other students and police. Previous familiarity helps.
        • Context
          • Geiselman et al - See f recreating connect helps eyewitness accounts. Shows police training video... Half shown it recreated and half only asked police q's.recreated = better!
        • Sterotypes
          • Cohen - See if stereotypes affect memory. pps shown video of a date and women either a waitress or librarian and asked to describe her. They matched the stereotypes. It'll reduce accuracy.
  • P/A-   Number plates = 7 info and Postcodes = 7 info... STS=7...
  • Videos are unrealistic! Not real life.  CCTV is limited. Length of time after accident can also affect it.
  • P/A - Police shouldn't ask questions after. Needs more evidence to identify criminals. Taken back to scene will help improve recall.

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