UNIT 1 revision

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  • Created on: 14-05-17 18:39

Networking Characteristics

Peer to Peer - Each computer is linked to one or more computers directly rather than going through a server. There are several forms of peer-to-peer networks.

The Star Network - All computers communicate through the central hub. All transmissions received from a peripheral on the star are broadcast to all peripherals by the central device. The benefit is that if one peripheral goes down the rest can continue to communicate; however, if the hub goes down the whole network is compromised. The cost of the cabling can also be expensive if the network is extensive.

Ring NetworkRing networks have one directional communication through a cable. The message is received by each computer in the ring between the sender and receiver. 

Client Server Client server networks are different. One device, which may be a computer or a specialist server, provides services such as applications, storage or internet connections to its clients (the other computers in the network).

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Connectivity Methods

WAN and MANA wide area network (WAN) can be transglobal, or cover whole countries or continents. Networks operating over smaller distances such as a town, city or cluster of close cities are called metropolitan area networks (MANs). Each type of network has its own rules or protocols to ensure that generic devices can communicate. 

Voice - Data and voice communication can be sent over telephone wires or by cellular or satellite technology. The clearest and most reliable method is over fixed cables between the sender and receiver. If it is not possible to be linked to a handset or computer which is plugged into a public switched telephone network (PSTN) (e.g. while travelling or in remote parts of the world), cellular (mobile phone) and satellite communication is appropriate.

SatilitesSatellites in geostatic orbit (those that appear to stay in a single location over Earth) are point-to-multipoint communication systems as they receive transmissions and rebroadcast them to receivers. 

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Business Systems

MISManagement information systems (MIS) refers to the software and hardware used by managers to obtain the necessary information for accurate decision-making and monitoring the effectiveness of decisions. The system continuously gathers internal and external data, and refines and organises it in one or more databases where it can be interrogated by those with access rights. 

CRM - To ensure that customer needs are met, data must be gathered, analysed and shared. Customer relations management (CRM) is a process that tracks how the business interacts with current and potential customers. A computer-based CRM system supports such activities by holding records of client communications, meetings and documents. This information is available to those with access rights. 

SOP Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are detailed step-by-step guide to how functions should be carried out within an organisation to ensure that they are carried out accurately and in the same way each time.  

Help Desk - When a user of a large, complex or widely spread system has a technical problem, it is useful to have a knowledgeable person ready to solve it. For straightforward problems, instructions can be given to the user and the issue resolved immediately, but complex problems can be actioned by a technician visiting the location and resolving the problem or providing a temporary fix. This is normally managed through agreed levels of support for departments or customers. 

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