The researcher deliberatly manipulates the IV while maintaing strict control over extraneous variables through standadised procedures in a controlled environment.
- High control means better internal validity
- Replicable so reliability can be cheaked
- Control over all variables allows experimenter to establish causal relationships
- Low ecological validity due to being conducted in artificial setting
- High chance of demand characteristics as Ps know they are being studied
The researcher deliberatly manipulates the independant variable, but does so in the subjects own natural environment.
- Higher ecological validity because it takes place in a real life environment.
- Less bias from sampling as subjects are not brought into lab.
- Less chance of demand characteristics (if subjects are unaware of being tested)
- Less controll over other variables meaning more bias likely from extraneous varables so lower internal validity.
- More difficult to replicate exactly so difficult to test tempral validity
- More difficult to record data accuratly
The IV is changed by natural occurance; the researcher just records the effect on the DV. The experimenter is laking in control over the IV (Quasi experiments)
- Has high ecological validity since the IV is a 'natural' change and occurs in a natural environment.
- Less bias from sampling as subjects are not chosen by experimenters
- No/low chance of demand characteristics
- Hard to infer cause and effect due to little control over extraneous variables and no direct manipulation of the IV.
- Virtually impossible to replicate exactly so tempral validity cannot be tested
A method of data analysis which measures the relationship between two or more variables or systematic pattern exists between them.
- Useful tool for suggesting directions for future research
- Can be used where it would be unethical or impractical to manipulate the variables involved.
- Produces precise information on the degree of relationship between the variables
- Cannot infer the direction of cause and effect
- There might be other unknown variables that can explain why the two variables are related.
Behaviour is in a natural setting where nothing has been changed either by the researcher or naturally. Ps are often unaware they are being studied and there is no IV.
- Ecological validity is very high as researcher has not changed the environment
- There are no demand characteristics as ps do not know they are being studied
- Can be used to generate ideas for or valadate findings from experimental studies
- Raises ethical issues as Ps are unaware of being studied so have no right to withdraw
- Lack of control over conditions makes replication more difficult
- Cannot legitimately infer cause and effect relationships between variables that are only obsevred but not manipulated
An ideographic method involving the in-depth study of an individual or particular group. They will often include a wide variety of qualative and quantative data gathering to provide a more discription of an individual.
- Highly detailed and indepth data is gathered
- Often the only method suitable for studying some types of behaviour
- Often the only method available due to rarity of behaviour
- Lack of genreralisability to the population due to single cases being to small and unrepresentative a sample
- Difficult or impossible to replicate
- No cause and effect can be legitamatly infered
Written methods of gaining information from subjects and do not necessarily require the presence of a researcher.
- Collect large amounts of standadised data which is easily compared
- Quicker, more efficient and more convinient than other research methods
- Highly replicaple due to standadised questions
- Ps cannot ask for assistance if they do not understand a question
- Heavily subject to social desirability bias
- Lack flexability for P to explain answer
A one-to-one conversation involving direct questioning of the P by the researcher. It contains fixed permeditated questions and ways of replying.
- Keeps conversation focused making comparison easier
- Reliable, replicable and easy to analyse
- Prevents the P for explaining their ideas fully
- Less validity - distorts/ignores data due to insensitivity
A one-to-one conversation involving direct questioning of the P by the researcher. It may contain a topic area for discussion but no fixed questions.
- Allows Ps to explain themselves fully
- Extremely flexable, natural and un-constricted
- Highly detailed and valid data
- Very unstandardised, therefore, not very replicable, reliable or generalisable
- Difficult to quantify and analyse
- Difficult to keep P focused on subject matter
A one-to-one conversation involving direct questioning of the P by the researcher. Contains semi-structured guidelines but elaboration is allowed.
- Very flexable, sensitive and valid
- Fairly reliable and easy to analyse
- Flexability leads to more difficulty in replication and bias from the interviewer