Types of Presidency

  • Created by: Q_
  • Created on: 07-04-19 18:12

The Imperial Presidency

Imperial Presidency: A presidnecy characterised by the misuse of presidential powers - especially in foreign policy. 

  • When North Korea invaded South Korea President Truman sent US troops to South Korea without any congressional authorisation.
  • In 1958, President Eisenhower sent 14,000 US troops to Lebanon without congressional authorisation. 
  • In 1961, President Kennedy launched the disastrous attack on the Bay of Pigs in Cuba without congressional authorisation. 
  • In 1970, President Nixon bombed Cambodia without even the knowledge, let alone the authorisation of Congress. 
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The Imperilled Presidency

Imperilled Presidency: A term coined by Gerald Ford to refer to a presidency characterised by ineffectiveness and weakness, resulting from Congressional over-assertiveness. 

Congress's reaction to the 'imperial presidency' was re-assertiveness. It passed a number of pieces of presidency-curbing legislation, especially in the field of foreign policy.

  • The Case Act (1972) forced presidnets to inform Congress of all executive agreements made with foreign states.
  • The War Powers Act (1973) attempted to limit presidents' use of troops unless Congress declared war or gave 'specific statutory authorisation'. 

The immediate post-Watergate presidents - Ford and Carter - found their hands much more tied in what became known as the era of the imperilled presidency. 

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