• Created by: chabs
  • Created on: 19-04-15 17:47

Recognising Faces (IW)


Identikit (sketch), Photofit(computer), difficult to describe, familiar and unfamiliar faces, perceive whole face rather than components, illumination and movement affects recall, internal and external features, usefulness.


A: Relative recognisability of internal and external features of facial composites

M: Lab, 30 staff and students, Sterling University, 10 celebrities, 10 composites of each (E-Fit, PRO-fit, Sketch and EVO-fit), 40 in total. Group 1 - complete composites, Group 2 - internal features, Group 3 - external features. Asked to match

R: External = 35% Internal = 19.5%

C: Holisitc approach when recognising faces, difficult to select internal features and external features can be easily changed

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Factors Influencing Identification (IW)


Shaping testimony, perception and memory, forgetting details, attitudes and attention affects judgement, weapon focus effect, immediate threat, attention is diverted, recall lacks reliability, unusual objects.


A: Witness memory is affected by the stress of seeing a gun

M: 36 students, advertisement, half paid $3.50, half given extra credit in psychology, proactive interference, 18 slides, queuing in a restaurant, control group=cheque, experimental group=gun to the cashier, other slides were identical, 1.5 seconds, questionnaire, 20 questions, confidence in identifying the suspect from 12 photos

R: Cheque = 39%  Gun = 11% accurate identification, Cheque = 3.7 seconds Gun = 2.4 seconds eye fixation. Questionnaire showed no significant difference between groups

C: Stressful situations makes an eye witness testimony suffer as attention is diverted to stressful stimuli.

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The Cognitive Interview (IW)


Fisher and Geiselman, twice at much recall, no loss of accuracy, scrutinise memory, no leading questions, maximise potential retrieval routes, triggering unrecalled details. 4 stages are: Re-instating context, free recall, multiple retrieval, varied recall 


A: Comparing experience detectives performance pre and post training in cognitive interview techniques

M: Field, RM, 16 experienced detectives, 7 completed CIT training, 9 untrained controls, tape recorded interviews, robbery, 4 months, underwent CIT training, four one-hour sessions, these plus 6 of the control group did atleast 2 interviews, recorded, transcribed and scored (factual, objective, relevent) 

R: 47% increase in information post training, 63% more in trained group compared to control group, 94% corroborated with other evidence

C: Multiple retrieval routes, increased usefulness 

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Detecting Lies (IS)


Truth, future prosecution, detect lies, false confessions, body language, polygraph, skin conductivity, heart rate, tense, possible to fool, ethical constraints, innocent until proven guilty


A: Police officers ability to detect lies during interviews with suspects

M: Field, 99 officers, Kent, 54 clips, 14 suspects, 6-145 seconds long, head and torso, questionnaire on experience with detecting lies, whether the suspect was telling the truth or not and how confident they were with their prediction, cues were listed too on detecting lies

R: Gaze, fidgeting, vagueness in replies indicates lies. Lies = 66% Truth = 63%, positive correlation between experience and ability to detect lies

C: Police officers are good at detecting lies however they make mistakes as it is not an exact science

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Interrogation Techniques (IS)


1984, Police and Criminal Evidence Act, interviews, recorded, triplicate (3 copies), one sealed for trial, one for the suspects solicitor and one for police. Protected from pressure, false confessions, interrogation, accusary in nature, two principles = frightening or tricking suspect into confessing


The Reids nine steps of interrogation:

Direct Confrontation: told they committed the crime

Theme Development: 'themes' are offered to shift blame from the suspect

Overcoming Objections: ignore any reasons the suspects gives for being 'not guilty'

Suspect Orally Confesses: self-incriminating, detailed confession is given to the interrogator alone

Conversion into Written Format: Needs to be done quickly so the suspects cannot retract

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False Confessions (IS)


Wrongful convictions, coercive questioning, confessions relieve doubt however situational factors are not considered. Kassin's three types of FC: voluntary, coerced compliant, coerced internalised 


A: Reporting a case of FC from a young man susceptible to the pressure of interrogation

M: Case study review, 17 year old FC, accused of two murders, arrested, financial inconsistencies, denied a solicitor, 14 hours long, no breaks, nowhere near the scene but after persistent questioning agreed and confessed (leading questions, accusory nature, sexually impotent). Second interview retracted his confession in front of duty solicitor but confessed again under pressure

R: Psychiatric examination, no result of mental illness, 10 for suggestibility on Gudjohnssons Suggestibiliy Scale, IQ: stable extrovert

C: Case of coerced compliant FC, confession gained to escape a intolerable situation, anyone can be affected by interrogation. FC was released after 12 month when the real culprit came forward

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Top-Down (Creating a Profile)


Applies pervious information from similar crimes, big picture, smaller details added, deductive method, evidence fits hypothesis, typology, similar criminals, similar characteristic. Stage 1: Data Assimilation, Stage 2: Crime Classification, Stage 3: Crime Reconstruction, Stage 4: Profile Generation


A: Effectiveness of profiling when identifying murder and sex offence suspects

M: Lab, 5 groups - expert detectives, detectives w/ profiling experience, detectives w/o profiling experience, clinical psychologists, undergraduate students. Asked to build a profile of two closed cases (sex offence and murder case)

R: Profilers were more accurate on sex offences; detectives w/o experience were more accurate on murder case.

C: Confidence and experience is needed, productive liaison between psychologist and police

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Bottom-Up (Creating a Profile)


Crime scene details creates a big picture, new details are added, inductive method, evidence forms hypothesis, consistencies, five factor theory, location of crime + mental maps= residential location, significance of time and place, The Circle Theory, marauder model, commuter model, geographic software programme, DRAGNET, only possible with serial crimes, retrospective study


A: Distance between home to crime for serial murders

M: Male serial killers, Germany, police/court documents, residential location and where bodies where left were plotted on a map, 247 murders, 70 year period, 90% under 40

R: 63% sexual murders occurred 10km of murderers residence, first murder was closest to home, older ther murderer, closer to home (neg correlation), IQ average was 100.5. Higher IQ further away the body was dumped

C: IQ and age effect the home-to-crime distance

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Case Study (Creating a Profile)


1982, KJ was *****, London's Hampstead station, dozens more were attacked over 2 years, Operation Hart, Railway ****** to Railway Killer in 1985, Alison Day, two more women were killed, survivors were unaware of appearance

1988, Canter created a profile using Bottom-Up and found: the attacker seems to relate, suggests previous violent relationships and minimum amount of force was used suggesting weakness

Location, acetate sheets, marking crime scenes, geographic profile, marauder, living in Kilburn/Cricklewood, married, no children, few friends, small, interest in martial arts, violent sex fantasies, 20-30 years old. Computer matched John Duffy who was suspect 1,505 from 5,000 and was later arrested. Fit the profile very closely, Kilburn, infertile, 2 male friends, 5"4, martial arts club, collector of weapons, hard-core **** videos, trained as British Rail carpenter, 28 years old, signature, collected 33 keys, forensic evidence, arrested and sentenced for life, years later admitted to the crimes

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