Richard III - Henry VIII

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  • Created by: Alison
  • Created on: 17-04-09 14:51

Why was Richard III's regin unstable?

Trust - accused of murdering his nephews

- accused of murdering his wife so he could marry his niece

- Duke of Buckingham executed without a trial

- brought Northerners down to run the South of England after Buckingham's rebellion

Dynasty - 1484, Richard's son, Edward, died

- 1485, Richard's wife, Anne, died

- close friend to Richard, Lord Stanely, married to Henry Tudor's mum so took Henry's side

Richard acting - removed Buckingham's lands and titles without an Act of Attainder

Extrajudically - Buckingham was executed without trial

Henry Tudor - out of Richard's grasp

- promised to marry Elizabeth of York

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Richard III's usurption

1470-71 - Richard accompanies his brtoher, Edward, in exile

1483 - April - Richard and Henry Stafford seize control of Edward V while travelling

toward London

- Buckingham challenged Edward V's legitimacy

- Edward V lodged in Tower of London under Richard's control while government

documents continue to be used in Edward's name until 16 June

June - Richard launched an attack on Edward

- 22 June, Edwrad and his brother were declared bastards

- 26 June, Richard deposed, Richard of Gloucester -> Richard III (crowned 6 July)

Autumn - disappearance of the Princes

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Buckingham's rebellion

  • rumours of the murder of the Princes began
  • surprisingly, the Duke of Buckingham headed the revolt, though he did also have a remote claim to the throne himself
  • Originally in support of Edward V, but when it became apparent he was dead, the revolt swung to support the exiled Henry Tudor
  • Richard seized Buckingham's lands (technically illegal), and executed him without trial on 2 November. This did not help Richards cause
  • Richard moved northerners to South and placed them in positions of power, upsetting many southerners and inspiring:

The Cat, the Rat and Lovell our Dog,

Rule all England under the Hog.

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Hnery VII: Exile

  • in exile for 14 years, mostly in Brittany
  • Edward VI offered a reward for Henry and Jasper Tudor's capture but Francis wouldn't hand them over, the were a useful bargaining chip between Brittany and England
  • 1475, Edward tried to persuade Francis he wanted Henry to marry one of his daughters, Henry had a 'fever' at the time and was able to escape to sanctuary
  • with Richard III's usurption, Henry became a viable prospect for king. It was agreed that Henry would marry Edward's daughter, Elizabeth of York
  • mid-October 1483, during Buckingham's rebellion, Henry sailed for England but wisely didn't land at Plymouth and on returning to Brittany he gained the support of disaffected Yorkists by promising to marry Elizabeth of York at Rennes cathedral on Xmas day 1483
  • while Duke Francis was ill, his advisors agreed to hand Henry over, but Henry is tipped off by John Morton and is able to escape to France. when Francis recored he allowed the rest of Henry's party to join him in Paris
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Henry VII: Bosworth

  • Charles VIII had promised Henry soldiers and 40,000 livres btu by April 1485 he had only received 10,000 livres and was only allowed francs archers
  • Henry sets sail on 1 August 1485 accompanied by 500 loyal supporters and 1,500 French soldiers. 7 August, Henry lands in Pembrokeshire. By 12 August Henry had persuaded Rhys ap Thomas to support him and by the time he reached Shrewsbury on 15 August he had about 5,000 men
  • Henry hopes for the support of Lord Stanely, his step-father, and Sir William Stanely as they had sent money to Henry but had to be careful as Richard help Lord Stanely's eldest son hostage
  • 22 August, two armies meet at Market Bosworth. Hnery has about 6,000 troops, Richard has about 12,000 and Stanley had 3,000 who waited on the flanks of the two armies
  • Henry attacks across a marsh, his troops led by the Earl of Oxford. Richard sees Henry and and leads a charge towards him. William Stanely intervened on Henry's side, charging tot he flank of Richard's troops. Richard was slain.
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Henry VII: Securing the crown

  • Henry had his reign dated from 21 August so he could have the defeated Yorkists attained, their lands reverting to Henry. He said Richard had usurped the throne
  • 11 October, Henry issued a pardon to those Yorkists who fled after the battle, hoping they wouldn't oppose his reign further
  • 30 October, Henry is crowned, with a Parliament meeting on 7 Novemeber to confirm his position - this never considered his right to the throne as there were people alive with better claims. he also applied for a Papal dispensation to marry Elizabeth of York, which he did on 18 January 1486
  • Richard had bequathed his crown to his nephew, John de la Pole, but he and his father, Duke of Norfolk, swore loyalty to Henry
  • the Earl of Northumberland was kept in the tower until the end of 1485, the Earl of Surrey until 1489
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Lovell and the Staffords

  • April 1486 - a small rebellionled by Francis, Lord Lovell and Thomas and Humphrey Stafford broke out. all had been loyal supporters of Richard III
  • since Boswortht hey had all been in sanctuary as they had continued to go against Henry
  • Lovell headed north to try and capture Henry whilst the Staffords went to attack the city of Worcester
  • Henry only survived becasue fo the Earl on Northumberland!
  • Henry heard of the 'break-out' but continued his progress as a sign of confidence and sent soldiers to force reconciliation or defeat the rebels, who soon scattered
  • Henry thought it wrong for a traitor to seek sanctuary so they were arrested. Humphrey was arrested while Thomas was pardoned and stayed loyal
  • Henry was successful in dealing with the rebels and his progress continued, enabling loyalty and obedience to be shown
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