Tissues in the lungs

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structures inside the lungs

  • trachea, bronchi and bronchioles a;; have similar structures
  • large airways so there is no obstruction of airflow
  • dividing up to smaller airway to reach the alveoli
  • strong enough to not collapse under low pressure
  • flexible for movement
  • is able to strech and recoil
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structure of airways

  • the wall is mostly made up of carilage
  • they are c shaped in the trachea 
  • the inner surface of cartilage has a layer of glandular tissue coneective tissue,elastic fibre, smooth tissue and blood cells this layer is called loose tissue
  • the epithelium layer has ciliated epithelium and goblet cells
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bronchioles

have no cartilage bbut have smooth muscles and elastic fibre

much narrower then bronchi

smalles bronchiole have alveoli clusters at the end

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cartilage

  • supports trachea and bronchi so they dont collapse under low pressure
  • c shape gives flexibility so throat can move without constricting
  • the oesophagus can expand when swalloing
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smooth muscles

can constrict, the bronchioles can constrict air from the alveoli

used if harmful substances are in the air

happens during asmtha or allergic reaction as it is involuntary

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elastic fibres

  • when inhaling these are stretched
  • they recoil during exhaling help push air out
  • can helplumen return to normal after smoothmuscle constricting it
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goblet cells/ glandular tissue

  • secretes mucus from under the ciliated epithelium 
  • helps catch particles such as bacteria or pollen
  • allows it to be removed without infection
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ciliated epithelium

  • has cillias which move in unison to move mucus
  • is moved to the back of throar to be swallowed 
  • the acid in the stomach kills of any bacteria
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