Theories of Health.

Theories of health, OCR psychology, health and clinical psychology. 


Health Belief Model; Becker.

Cognitive model which identifies factrs of an individuals healthy lifestyle. It has 4 inter-related components, perceived threat, barriers and benefits, cue to action, demographics. The study by Becker looks at the HBM. 

Aim; Test the ability of HBM to explain a mothers differential compliance with a drug regime for their asthmatic children. (111 mothers aged 17-54, their children aged 9 months - 17). 

Method and Procedure; Correlations in self report. for some p's blood tests were conducted. interviews were conducted and lasted 45 minutes on demographic factors regarding family life and faith in doctors. 

Results; Positive correlation with mothers belief in childs susceptibility of asthma and attacks and compliance. Positive correlation between mothers perception of seriousness of asthma and giving the prescription to the child. 

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Health Belief Model; Becker.

Evaluation; sample - small and only collected from an asthma clinic. It is not represensative of a population therefore the results are not able to be generalised to a population. 

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Locus of Control; Rotter.

Cognitive model which identifies whether an individual believes they control their health - internal factors or whether someone else controls their health - external factors. If you believe you have no control then 'fate' will decide the theory is deterministic as locus on control will predict your health behaviours or the lack of them. 

Aim; Internal locus 'vs' External locus. 

Method and Procedure; Review article. 6 pieces of information into individual perceptions of ability to control outcomes based on reinforcement. 

Results; Consistent indication that participants who felt they had control over the situation are more likely to show behaviours that would enable them to cope with potential threats. 

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Locus of Control; Rotter.

Evaluation; validity - was not a full sample. it was looking at previous research therefore there could be researcher bias as Rotter may have just chosen the evidence that supported his idea. This means it is not represensative so the results from this review article cannot be generalised to the population. 

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Self - Efficacy; Zalewksa-Pulchala.

Based on a theory by Bandura. The idea to the extent where you think you will be successful. There are 4 key ideas to self-efficacy. vicarious, verbal persuasion, previous experiences, emotional arousal.  The study by Zalewksa-Pulchala looks at self-efficacy. 

Aim; Assess the health behaviour of college students to evaluate the sense of self-efficacy. 

Participants; 164 student nurses (mainly female) Poland. 

Method and Procedure; Self report was done in form of a questionnaire to look for correlations between their lifestyle and sefl-efficacy. BMI was also taken. 

Results; Diet - low fats (3%) correlation. Exercise - no correlation. Smoking - no correlation. Alcohol - high levels of alcohol showing low self-efficacy. This was an unexpected result. 

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Self - Efficacy; Zalewksa-Pulchala.

Evaluation; Generalisability - study was conducted in Poland on Polish students so therefore theresults are not represensative of everyone so can only be generalised to the Polish population. 

When consuming alcohol people often underestimate the amounts they are actually drinking so it could be much more meaning the validity is lower. In this case it could be social desirability as the students may not want to come across as being completely unhealthy considering they are medical students. 

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