- Created by: tigger_tori
- Created on: 16-03-17 08:58
3 functions of education
S ocilaisation Durkheim, Parsons
S kills provision
R ole allocation Davis and Moore
Education Socilaises young people into Key cultural norms and values.
Durkheim felt the school played an important part in making sure individuals had moral reposnsibility for others; these can be seen in schools through citizsnsip and fundraising for charities.
Parsons believed school acted as the brodge betwen family and wider society; helping children to adapt to to the meritocractic view of achievement
Education provides young people with the skills tehy need for wider society.
An occupation more specialised requires longer periods of education.
Education allocates people the most appropriate job for their skills. This is determined from examinations and qualifications.
Davis and Moore refer to the process as sifting and sorting. Schools is like a giant sieve which sorts people into their most appropriate groups
- they believe there are only one set of values; however different cultural groups have varying values
- Marxist theory argue meritocracy is a myth as certain group sare put at a disadavantage just because of the class they are born into
R eproduce inequalities
J ustify these inequalities through the myth of meritocracy
Bowles and Gintis
says that education is part of the ideological state appartatus [contolled by ideas]
He focusses on the hidden curriculm
- the things you learn in school which are not par of the curriculm
- For example puncuality, communication skills, gender expectations
He argues this encourages working class people to confrom to the capitalist system and accept failure. Therefore repoducung and justifying
Bowles and Gintis - Correspondence principle
They argue there is a link between what goes on in school and the world of work.
They believe the hiden curriculm does this by making usre there is a hard-working, obedient and motivated workforce through
- acceptance of the hierarchy, organised by the headteacher who has the controla nd pupils obey the teachers
- motivated by external rewards such as qualifications
They do not believe school is meritocratic as they believe the class sysem is the most influential.
- exaggerated the link between school and the workplace
- they ignore the formal curriculm
- other people argue school does not prepare people for wider society
- vocational subjects support bowles and gintis
- If school creates passive students why have subjects such as sociology
Bourdieu - Cultural Capital
Cultural Capital is middle class - measure by for example how many books people read, how often you visit museums and art galleries.
Bourdieu believed the more cultural capital you had the better you do in school
Schools are believed to be middle class institiutions run by middle class adults resulting in the middle class students getting the best rewards.
Sullivan tested Bourdieu theory's shwing it supoorts Marxist theory that teh function of education is to REPRODUCE
Sullivan's research support the idea that the high cultural capital a parent had the better the child would do in education. Showing that these concepts are still relvenat today.
Internationalism - labelling
Focus on th eprocesses in school. why some children do better than others and how studnet sand teachers read each other.
Labelling and Self Fulfilling concept
Rosenthal & Jacobson
told teachers false information about the students IQ. The children who the teachers believed had an high IQ did better than tose belived to have a low IQ.
Suggetsing that self-fullfilling prophecy can occur.
- Supports labelling and sfp
- positive label led to excoraugemnt and intellectual progress.
Internationalism - setting and streaming
Setting - grouping pupils together for specific subjects
Streaming- grouping students togther in a hierarchical system and stayed in the groups for all subjects
Ball - studied banding in comprehensive schools:
lower streams - more likely to be working-class, behaviour deteriorated and lower expecatitions practical subjects and lower level exams
higher streams - middle-class
Keddie - streams in lonom schools for humanities
students in lower bands the content was simplified with it being absed on common sense
students in higher bands had more abstract concepts exanding their knowledge
Internationalism - evaluation
- Only look at processes in education so they fail to explain wider class inequalities (marxist)
- labelling can be seen as deterministic. Sense students have no control over their achievement. However not all live up to their labels
- many studies show male peer groups so are noit useful to explain female peer groups
The New Right - competition
schools have to compete with ecahother in orde to attrcat pupils
Chubb & Moe
studied American system of education and suggested parents should have a choice of where their child goes to school
this would create competition leading to successful schools growing and others shutting down
The New Right - Evaluation
- competition stops choice as schools close down - eg Riverside in Leicestershire
- limitied by geographical location
- schools may change as a result of Ofstead, chnage of headteachers, results