Theme 3 Case Studies

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Singapore NIC

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Industry in South Wales

  • Pre 1800 - Iron ore, Firewood/Charcoal
  • Supplied with water power
  • Resources and supplies had run out so they had to relocate
  • 1900 Industrial Revolution - Big scale
  • Coal in the valleys
  • Booming Industry
  • Present Day - Iron ore and coal Best Location
  • Imports and exports

Rise of the Industry:

  • Near Cardiff and Swansea
  • High Investment and Profit

Fall of the Industry:

  • Iron and coal ran out
  • More resources in other countries
  • Collapse of the British Empire
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Ransomes Europark Ipswich

Near a residential area so workers are nearby

Availability of raw materials from nearby quarries and docks

Power source from Nacton Heath Plantation

Flat Land

Rail Transport

Situated on the A14 and near the A12 to Felixstowe

Located with other shopping areas and amentities

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Nissan - Multinational Corporation

  • Factory in Washington, Sunderland
  • Good labour relations
  • Boost for steel industry
  • Suppliers now from Europe
  • Large roads and Motorway links
  • Immediate deliveries
  • Links with Sunderland University
  • Reliable energy source
  • Flexible working and conditions
  • Avoided tax
  • Disused airfield = warehouse built
  • Help with start up costs because of unemployment in the area
  • New docks and traffic organisation - improving infrastructure
  • Brought over a new working technique and made all the employees equal
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Footloose Companies - Swindon

  • Landscaping pretty areas
  • Close to other footloose industries
  • Close to residential areas
  • Transport links
  • Near research facilities
  • Near universities to have skilled workers
  • Close to markets
  • Isolate sites
  • Flat Land - Greenfield sites
  • Isolate sites near the Welsh Valleys
  • Close to residential areas
  • Cross roads
  • Railways built - changed industrial area
  • Big engineering area
  • Lowest unemployment in Britain
  • M4 Motorways
  • 14000 people working on the railways
  • Honda are based here
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Nokia - Multination Corporation

  • World's largest manufacturer of mobile phones
  • It is a Finnish MNC
  • Employs 112,000 people
  • Factories in 10 countries
  • Farnborough and Cambridge are good research and development centres
  • Skilled staff from the University
  • Many similar businesses nearby
  • Huntington is Nokia's Sales and Marketing
  • Godmanchester is Nokia's Head Office
  • M4 and M11 have a population of 15 Million - source of recruitment
  • International Airports for goods to be brought into the country
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Globalisation - Fashion Industry

Globalisation: 'The world getting smaller and the mixing of people'

Interdependence: 'The complex patterns of trade communication and aid which links countries together

Transnation Corporation - A company that is in 2 or more countries

  • Denim is made from cotton in Benin
  • Woven and dyed in Italy - from dye from Germany
  • Stonewashed in Turkey
  • Dried and Pressed in France
  • Designed in the USA
  • Sold in the UK
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Cambridge Science Park

Cambridge is a centre for large numbers of high technology quarternary industries - 'Silicon Fen'

Aims to provide high quality laboratory and office buildings to a community of compatible industries involved in scientific research and development

  • Cambridge is located in East Anglia
  • Near the M25
  • Near to Stansted, Gatwick and Heathrow Airports

Attracts university graduates

Links between industry and the university

In 1997, Microsoft invested £50 Million in the area

House prices in Cambridge are very high

Traffic congestion is increasing

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Union Carbide - Bhopal India

US Multinational Company

Chemical Manufacturer of pesticides

Events on the 3rd/4th December 1984:

  • Chemical reaction of MIC
  • Sevin was the pesticide being produced - this attacks the nervous system
  • While cleaning the pipes, chemicals were mixed
  • Carbon monoxide and chlorine - phosgene
  • Health and safety laws were poor
  • Low number of maintenance staff - cheap materials were used on site (Stainless steel)
  • Systems failed
  • 3000 people choked to death
  • Burning sensation to the lungs eyes and nose with a mucus to stream out
  • Hydrocyanic acid which causes cyanide poisoning was the cause of death
  • Villagers were left without compensation and they lost their homes
  • Indian government denied responsibility
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USA - Contribution to Trade

  • Second largest exporter of goods
  • Mainly manufactured or industrial
  • World's largest importer of goods from abroad
  • Large TNC's such as Ford, Hewlett Packard, Microsoft, Coca cola and Colgate
  • 170/500 top companies in the World are in the USA
  • 301 Million in population
  • 67% are of working age
  • 99% literacy rate
  • Part of NAFTA - Canada and Mexico
  • Other large links  - China, India and Germany
  • Rich in Natural Resources
  • 1/5 of World's coal
  • Pastoral farming
  • 17 Busiest Airports of the World - USA has 12/30 largest cargo airports
  • Interstate 95 - Built in 1957 and is 1927 miles long
  • Many global climates
  • Adequate precipitation
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Fair trade is where the workers are paid and looked after properly

Workers join together in a co-operative so that they can agree on a fair price

Fairtrade premium allows them to develop other areas in their life

Unfair Trade:

  • Workers are paid £1.60 a day
  • Not given protective clothing or training with chemicals
  • Not allowed to join trade unions

Fairtrade wants to increase the workers wage by 60%

Reduce 50% of Poverty in Tanzania by 2015

The Co-op are working closely with a plantation in Ghana

They have supported them financially and with setting up the co-operative

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Aid to Mail and Niger

  • Mail is one of the poorest countries in the World
  • Two-thirds is desert
  • Rainfall is unpredictable
  • Child mortality is high
  • Diseases: Cholera etc.
  • 1 in 5 children die before their 1st birthday
  • 15 million in population
  • Poor sanitation
  • Life expectancy = 50 years
  • Emergency Aid = Oxfam, Unicef, UN - UK Government gave £3 Million
  • Development Aid = Mainly NGOs such as Oxfam
  • Food aid for 600,000 people for a month
  • Water purification tablets
  • Therapeutic food for 17,000 malnourished children
  • 245 cereal banks
  • Development and Training has improved
  • Quality of life and Standard of Living has increased
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Lesotho Water Project

  • Large scale water management scheme
  • 4 phases of build which will create 6 dams
  • 200km tunnel systems
  • 40% of water in Lesotho is being diverted to South Africa
  • The Monale dame was completed in 2002
  • 87% of people in South Africa now have access to clean water
  • Creates hydroelectric power
  • Transfers water to needed areas
  • The Lesotho government has funded $45 Million this but will need to be paid back to them
  • Many people have had to move away from their homes
  • Lesotho could cut the supply to South Africa at any time
  • Arable farming areas have been reduced
  • 50% of the water is being wasted in broken pipes
  • Industry and population has grown a lot in Johannesburg
  • Lesotho recieves water from the Orange river that runs from the West
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