The Tudors- Henry VIII to Mary

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Henry 1509 to 1529

Henry comes to the throne in 1509 aged 17. He is unpripared as he was never intended to be king, his brother Arthur was.


  • Conquer Land
  • Have an air (succure succeshon)
  • Be his own man (wanted to be a renaissance king so killed his farthers finanshal advisors two days affter Henry VII's death and married his brothers wife cathrin of arigon)
  • Pursure pleasures of bring a king
  • Foren policy (gain land on the continent)


  • Arrigant, spoilt
  • self indulgent 
  • competative/ show off, spent alot of money on war
  • Generous, Determind, self assured
  • Insecure- on political issues, wasnt supposed to be king, deligated jobs.
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Henry 1509-29 Foreign Policy

  • 1511- First French War
  • 1513- Battle of Flodden, Battle of the Spurs, Tornai and Therouanne, Charles V becomes Emperor
  • 1518- Treaty of London- immediate fame for Henry & Wolsey
  • 1520- Field of the Cloth of Gold
  • 1521- Bruges alliance (alliance with Charles V)
  • 1520- 25- Support for the Habsburgs
  • 1522- War on France (but England backs out)
  • 1525- Pavia (Charles gives England nothing and doesn’t want to split France in two an because they have alreddy backed out of the war)
  • 1525-29- Support for France, League of Cognac, break with Rome (divorce). Charles captures the Pope.
  • 1527- English and French alliance
  • 1528- England agrees to war against Charles with France
  • 1529- Battle of Landriano (France beaten) and Treaty of Cambrai. Wolsey falls from power.
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Wolsey's Rise

  • Personality-ambitious, organised,opportunistic, clever (scholarship to Oxfored at 15)
  • Origins- son of a butcher (so Henry believed he would never be able to rise above him)
  • Luck- was in right place at right time
  • pleased the king- gave gifts and tokens and showed promis with early succes of organisashon of first french war.
  • Intimidating rivals such as Buckingham
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Wolseys Reforms

  • Flexable tax- a subsidy, to overcome Henry VIII's finanshal problems-low income at £23,000 per annum. tax baced on income rather than property-collected to help pay for war with france=only rebbellion in the first half of Henrys reign.
  • 1515-Act of Resumption, returned some lands to crown- to fund war
  • 1517-encloshurs enquiry-how much land is enclosed and what is the effect
  • Government exspendisher (£1.7 million) still exseded that rased by Wolsey
  • 1518-Treaty of London (did not last long, HRE's land enclosed by france, but wolsey and Henry seen as peacemakers)
  • 1525-Amicable grant-from church and ordinary tax payers baced on value of property
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Wolsey's Fall From Power

The Divorce issue:

  • Diplomatic manoeuveres- tried to free pope by an alliance with france and war with Italy to destract Charles
  • Scrptual arguments-justified annulment in the eyes of catholic church-Cathrin and Arthur
  • Legal efforts-attempted to hold divorce in England were he could make disishon as papal legate, but pope(under charles influence) agreed to Catherine's appile for it to be held in Rome.

Boleyn Faction: 

  • Anne wanted control in domestic affars
  • Anne blamed wolsey for not putting enough effot in to getting Henrys divoce
  • Royal council became difficult for wolsey to control as was full of Boleyns

Foreign Policy(Treaty of cambri, battle of spures)

Own personality- became to ambishus for Henry, Altuer-Rex

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Rise to power: worked under Wolsey, electied as member of parliment in 1529 and played active role in attaching abuses within the church.

  • By 1532 had effectivly taken over the kings divorce.
  • 1532-1536- created the Church of England and destroyed powers of Rome.
  • Society: Ordered records of births, marriages and deaths. By 1601 the population stood at 4.1 million- double the start or tudor times.
  • Movement form a personal monarchy to a bureaucratic government based on 'departments' that worked according to agreed rules and procedures and therefore was less open to the influence of individuals.
  • King and parliament replaced by king in parliament 
  • Church and state replaced by Church in state
  • Extension or royal authority in the region
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Cromwell Reforms


  • Passed a quantity and quality of laws never seen before
  • Church now involved in areas of government previously not
  • 'king and parliament' became 'king in parliament' with ultimate authority 
  • government expanded-medeivel=personal monarchy where monarch directly involved in decisions


  • set up costs just to handle government admin
  • Increased specialism in managing royal finance
  • Gave monarch significant control over day to day decisions of income and expenditure
  • Privy chamber became septet from other part of the chamber


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Henry VIII 1540-47 Factions



  • Lead by Duke of Norfolk (thomas Haward).
  •  Accepted the brake with Rome, but apposed to doctrinal changes.
  •  Associated with the 6 articles act, the fall or thomas Cromwell, catherine Howard, plot against Catharine par.


  • Lead by Edward seymour
  • Accepted the brake with Rome, seeing it as an opportunity to introduce Protestant doctrines in to the church
  • Associated with: success in foreign policy with scotland, fall of Catherine Howard, Catherine par.
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Henry VIII 1540-47

Aims: Secure succession and foreign policy 

Foreign Policy 

  • Battle of Solway Moss-defeted scotlands 10,000 men with 3000, James v died and Mary queen of scots took the thrown at 6 days old. Lead to treaty of greenwich (the engagement of Edward and Mary-rejectied by scotland).
  • Joint invasion of France with spain in 1543-Boulogne surrendered to England when Henry sent 40,000 men to Calais, but Charles V made peace with Francis on the same day and Henry was forced to sign the treaty of camp in 1546- England keep Boulogne for 8 years and then returned to France for £600,000 and Henry given a pension of £35,000 a year.
  • Renewal of Franco-Scottish alliance- England vulnerable to attack from north and south. 

England paid a lot for little gain-due to inflation and the grater numbers of more modern weapons required war, meaning it was more expensive. lead to coin debasement to pay for war=inflation. Cromwell removed and no longer wanted chef minister. 

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Edward VI- Foreign Policy

Somerset (Lored Protector) 

  • Battle of Pinkie- spent £600,000 for little gain as ended in the winter, to cold to fight giving scotland time to gain french support.
  • Fortifications-very expensive and failed to keep french out in1548
  • Increased economic crisis in England, distracted government attention away from domestic problems and worsened security by creating union between France and Scotland.


  • Brought expensive and unsuccessful war with france to an end- by ending Boulogne treaty in 1550
  • Repaired relations with France in case Charles V grew more angry about Protestantism in England (regarded spain as bigger threat)
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Edward VI- Religion

Somerset (Lord Protector)

  • Tried to adopt a moderate and cautious approach
  • Enquiry in to the state of the church, commissioners sent to find out what is happening in every parish.
  • The Treason Act-Undid the 6 articles act (moved to a Protestant society)
  • The act of uniformity-English to be used as the language of worship and it became an offence not to attend church services.
  • This only introduced a moderate form of Protestantism and contributed to the rebellions that removed somerset from power.

Northumberland(lord president of the council)

  •  Took more of a decisive role in to Protestantism 
  • New Church based on half changes and vague statements.
  • Legislation in 1552-53 goes further- a new pray book=church now much more in the Protestant faith.
  • Removed during Marys reign how every the basis of Elizabeth's reign
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Edward VI- Social-Economic

Somerset (lord protector)

  • Chantries Act (1547)- Land, property, gold and silver confiscated from chantries. Gold and silver melted to make more coins and the silver content of coins replaced by copper (1551 silver content reduced to 25%)
  • Vagrancy Act (1547)- any person out of work for 3 days was branded with a v and sold in to slavery for 2 years. widely unpopular and uninformed by many authorities.
  • Enclosures- Proclamations made against enclosures, main effect was to increase unrest Somerset main goal.
  • Sheep and cloth tax- aimed to stop people exploiting wool industry. unpopular with land owners.
  • Ban on football, and offence to spread rumours and unlawful assembly forbidden- to end riots

Northumberland (lord president of the council)

  • Coin debasement for the last time, and coinage  called in an re-issued with silver content
  • 1553- financial situation stabilised.
  • Vagrancy act and sheep tax repealed
  • Sold crown lands to pay loans
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Edward VI- Rebellion

Somerset (lord Protector)

  • Western Rebellion-Against the act of uniformity and gentry seizing Church land. Began in June not stopped till August- Somerset slow to react. Lord russle sent to stop rebellion but had lack of troops and lac of local gentry support.  
  • Kett's Rebellion- Kett was in an argument as he had enclosed a lot of land. He showed good leadership and gathered 16000 men and captured Norwich. Eventually crushed by John Dudley (rise of Northumberland), with an army of 14000 men. Slow response again by Somerset

Northumberland (lord President of the council)

  • Rose when he crushed the Kett's rebellion
  • Succession- Edwards health deteriorating, didn't want Mary in power as she was a catholic. tried a riot to put Lady Jane Gray in power. Failed and was executed as the people supported the rule of law and right full succession
  • Neither dealt well with rebellion, but northumberland worse.
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Mary I


  • Restore Catholicism 
  • Secure succession (37 when she came to thrown and only met Philip twice)
  • Better relations with spain


  • Book of Rates= trebled crown custom dutie income
  • Sorted out the 'grate debasement' by revaluing currency
  • Modernising Army- 6 new ships
  • Economic situation worcend because of bad harvest and disease epidemic
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Mary I


  • Philip of spain- singed a marriage alliance ment england was pulled in to war with spain against france.
  • Marriage alliance- Gave Philip no pawer, an heir would only inherit England, not spain, Philip had no claim to throne should part die.
  • Led to Wyatt's rebellion- also against catholicism, serious threat to crown as it threatened the capital.
  • Led to loss of Calais as result of wars with france form marriage alliance.


  • Policy of education and persecution- better training and supervision of parish priests with bishops to set up training schools, with national decrees introduced that laid down the standards expected, and the persecution of Protestant leaders such as crammer
  • By 1558 there was a strong resistant Protistant support- killed for their faith and seen as martyrs. All changes reversed by Elizabeth.
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How to Wright an Essay

You must plan your essay first


  • You must have an introduction, you must show the examiner that you understand the question. Set out your argument. AQALS= Ansar the question, Qualification of turns, Arguments, List of relevant factors and their Significance.

Internal Paragraphs 

  • In the best essays candidates continually address the question through out the essay. Use the language of the question.The main points of each paragraph should be stated in the opening paragraphs. PEE- Point Evidence Explanation.


  • Sums up arguments form through out. make shore it is the same argument as in the introduction.
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elliott miller

Your spelling is atroshus.  



WAGWAN! tanks 2 yr hlp , i tink dis exams wil go so vel -  cheers bredrin 

Sarah Cope

Sorry for the bad spelling, Im really dyslexic so not the easiest of things! not really necessary to bring it up in a comment tho, if you don't like it move on...


thanks for making this :)x

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