The Treaties of WW1

The basic terms of each of the treaties that were given out after WW1. The most well-known was the Treaty of Versailles 

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 01-03-11 20:33

Treaty of St Germain, 1919 - Austria

  • This treaty separated Austria from Hungary and confirmed that Austria was no longer a leading power.
  • Under the treaty, Austrian territories were divided as follows:
    • Bohemia and Moravia went to the new state of Czechoslovakia
    • Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia went to the new state Yugoslavia (which included the former kingdom of Serbia)
  • Austria also lost Galicia to Poland and South Tryol and Istria to Italy
  • Its army was restricted to 30,000 men
  • Austria was also forbidden ever to unite with Germany
  • This treaty was more about sorting out the territories around the new states, rather than punishing Austria.
  • However, Italy was not very happy with this arrangement and thought it should have recieved more land.
  • Many millions in eastern Europe were given self-determination
  • Austria suffered severe economic problems after the war, as much of its industry had gone to Czechoslovakia
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Treaty of Neuilly, 1919 - Bulgaria

  • Bulgaria did well compared to Germany, Austria and Hungary.
  • Most of the land lost by Bulgaria went to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia
  • Bulgaria also lost access to the Mediterranean
  • The limit for its armed forces was 20,000
  • It also had to pay £100 million in reparations
  • Bulgaria had played a relatively small part in the war and was therefore treated less harshly than its allies.
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Treaty of Trianon, 1920 - Hungary

  • Under the treaty, Hungarian territories were divided as followed:
    • Transylvania went to Romania
    • Slovakia, Ruthenia went to Czechoslovakia
    • Slovenia, Croatia went to Yugoslavia
    • A number of other territories went to Romania
  • Hungary lost a substantial amount of its territory and its population (3 million Hungarians ended up in other states)
  • Its industries suffered from the loss of population and raw materials.
  • Hungary was due to pay reparations but the economy was so weak it never did.
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The Treaty of Sevres, 1920 - Turkey

  • This was the last of the treaties to be arranged. Turkey was the most important because of its strategic position and the size of its empire.
  • Under the Treaty of Sevres, Turkey's territories were divided as followed:
    • Smyrna went to Greece
    • Syria was under French Control due to mandate
  • Also, Turkey effectively lost control of the Dardanelles, the straits running into the blacks sea.
  • Much of their country was to be controlled by forgein powers - Italy, France and Britian.
  • The Turks also had to accept that many countries of their former empire eg Egypt, Tunsia and Morrocco were now independent or under British or French control.
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The Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 - Revised the Treaty

  • The Treaty of Sevres was signed, by the representatives of the Ottoman Sultan.
  • Almost immediately after, a national rising took place in Turkey, led by Kemal Ataturk. He refused to accept the treaty.
  • He defeated the Greek army which had occupied Smyrna and abolished the Sulanate. The last Sultan fled on a British warship.
  • Ataturk demanded a new treaty. This was signed in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1923.
  • All the territories Greece had been handed by the Treaty of Sevres were returned to Turkey (including Smyrna)
  • There followed an unhappy period when Greeks from the Smyrna area, who had lived there for generations, were forcibly removed to Greece. In return, Turkish communites from the Greek island of Crete were sent to Turkey.
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