The skeletal system

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the five major functions if the skeleton

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the five major functions of the skeleton

it provides the body with its shape 

determines wether the body is tall short broad or narrow

ot acts as a support for the entire body

it protects vital organs e.g. the cranium protects the brain, the ribcage protects the heart and lungs

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the skeletal system

it allows the body movement, the bones of the skeleton allow us to move when the muscles attached to them contract

It is the site of blood production

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bones

long bones -  

hands and feet - metacarpals phalanges and metatarsals

legs - femur, tibia and fibula 

arms - humerus, radius and ulna 

short bones -

hands and feet - carpals and tarsals

flat bones - 

 cranium, clavicle, scapula, sturnum and ribs

irregular bones - 

vertibrae and patella

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joints

a joint is where two or more bones meet

there are three main types of joints in the human body - 

fixed e.g. the skull

slightly moveable e.g. the ribs 

freely  mmoveable -  these are known as synovial joints and they are the largest group of joints in the body e.g. the knees

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types of joints

ball and socket - can move in all directions e.g. shoulder and hips

hinge joint - can only move in two directions (flexion and extension)

                    e.g. elbow and the knee

pivot joint - only allows rotation an example of this kind of joint is at                              the base of the skull which allows you to turn your head from side to side

saddle joint - the thumb is a saddle joint it allows flextin, extension, abduction , adducution, and circumduction

condyloid - the wrist which allows same movemnt as saddle joint

gliding joint - bones in the hand

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Connective Tissue

there are three types of connective tissues which join bones and muscles.

Cartilage - these are a tough but flexble tissue that acts as a buffer between joints to stop bones from rubbing.

Ligaments 

Ligaments attach bone to bone

They are strong and elastic and help to keep joints stable

Tendons

Attach muscles to bone

Strong and non-elastic cords

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Movements

Flexion

the decreasing of an angle at the joint, such as the bending of an angle at the elbow

Extension

the opposite to flexion where the angle at a joint is increased, such as straightening the arm at the elbow

Abduction

the movement of a bone or limb away from the midline of the body such as the first movement of a star jump

Adduction

the opposite movement to abduction where the bone or limb moves towards the body such as the return of the movement of the arms and legs when performing a star jump

Rotation

where the bone or limb moves round freely in a curve, such as the movement of the arm when bowling in cricket

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Long term effects of exercise on the skeletal syst

Bones continue to grow until a person has attained their adult height

Regular exercise increases the density of bones.  this makes the bones heavier and stronger

Regular exercise also improves the strength of ligaments and bones.  This improves flexiblity in joints and allows more power in movement.

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The importance of weight bearing exercises on the

Bones naturally become lighter and less dense with age which reduces strength.

If too much bone is lost it can lead to osteoporosis which can lead to fractures.

Weight bearing exercises encourage the body to adapt to the increased workload and increase bone density.

weight bearing exercises include walking, yoga and aerobics.

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The effect of diet on the skeletal system

Eating a balanced diet will aid the growth and density of bones in the skeletal system

Calcium is essential for the maintenance of bones as well as teeth, blood clotting and normal muscle function

Vitamin D is also essential for growth and maintenance of healthy bones.  This is made by the body when it is exposed to sunlight.  It can also be found in fish and eggs.

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