the five major functions if the skeleton
the five major functions of the skeleton
it provides the body with its shape
determines wether the body is tall short broad or narrow
ot acts as a support for the entire body
it protects vital organs e.g. the cranium protects the brain, the ribcage protects the heart and lungs
the skeletal system
it allows the body movement, the bones of the skeleton allow us to move when the muscles attached to them contract
It is the site of blood production
long bones -
hands and feet - metacarpals phalanges and metatarsals
legs - femur, tibia and fibula
arms - humerus, radius and ulna
short bones -
hands and feet - carpals and tarsals
flat bones -
cranium, clavicle, scapula, sturnum and ribs
irregular bones -
vertibrae and patella
a joint is where two or more bones meet
there are three main types of joints in the human body -
fixed e.g. the skull
slightly moveable e.g. the ribs
freely mmoveable - these are known as synovial joints and they are the largest group of joints in the body e.g. the knees
types of joints
ball and socket - can move in all directions e.g. shoulder and hips
hinge joint - can only move in two directions (flexion and extension)
e.g. elbow and the knee
pivot joint - only allows rotation an example of this kind of joint is at the base of the skull which allows you to turn your head from side to side
saddle joint - the thumb is a saddle joint it allows flextin, extension, abduction , adducution, and circumduction
condyloid - the wrist which allows same movemnt as saddle joint
gliding joint - bones in the hand
there are three types of connective tissues which join bones and muscles.
Cartilage - these are a tough but flexble tissue that acts as a buffer between joints to stop bones from rubbing.
Ligaments attach bone to bone
They are strong and elastic and help to keep joints stable
Attach muscles to bone
Strong and non-elastic cords
the decreasing of an angle at the joint, such as the bending of an angle at the elbow
the opposite to flexion where the angle at a joint is increased, such as straightening the arm at the elbow
the movement of a bone or limb away from the midline of the body such as the first movement of a star jump
the opposite movement to abduction where the bone or limb moves towards the body such as the return of the movement of the arms and legs when performing a star jump
where the bone or limb moves round freely in a curve, such as the movement of the arm when bowling in cricket
Long term effects of exercise on the skeletal syst
Bones continue to grow until a person has attained their adult height
Regular exercise increases the density of bones. this makes the bones heavier and stronger
Regular exercise also improves the strength of ligaments and bones. This improves flexiblity in joints and allows more power in movement.
The importance of weight bearing exercises on the
Bones naturally become lighter and less dense with age which reduces strength.
If too much bone is lost it can lead to osteoporosis which can lead to fractures.
Weight bearing exercises encourage the body to adapt to the increased workload and increase bone density.
weight bearing exercises include walking, yoga and aerobics.
The effect of diet on the skeletal system
Eating a balanced diet will aid the growth and density of bones in the skeletal system
Calcium is essential for the maintenance of bones as well as teeth, blood clotting and normal muscle function
Vitamin D is also essential for growth and maintenance of healthy bones. This is made by the body when it is exposed to sunlight. It can also be found in fish and eggs.