The Muscular System

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  • Created by: Jamie Lee
  • Created on: 13-03-13 16:20

The Muscular System

Muscles are the driving force behind movement. There are 11 main muscles that we know as voluntary muscles, these are:

  • Deltoid
  • Trapezius
  • Latissimus Dorsi
  • Pectorals
  • Abdominals
  • Biceps
  • Triceps
  • Glueteals
  • Quadriceps
  • Hamstrings
  • Gastrocnemius
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Voluntary Muscles

Voluntary muscles bring about movement. They can be consciously controlled and trained to be stronger and work for longer periods. They are called voluntary muscles because we can control them.

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Involuntary Muscles

Involuntary muscles contract and lengthen by themselves as happens in internal organs. For example those in the gut are involved in processes we cannot contain such as digestion.

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Deltoids

Produces:

  • Abducts the upper arm from the body.

Example:

  • Serve in Tennis
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Trapezius

Produces:

  • Rotates the shoulder blade backwards

Example:

  • Rowing
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Latissimus Dorsi

Produces:

  • Rotates the upper arm at the shoulders.

Example:

  • Swimming (Butterfly stroke).
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Pectorals

Produces:

  • Adduction of Arm

Example:

  • Swimming (Front crawl).
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Abdominals

Produces:

  • Flexion and rotation of trunk.

Example:

  • Rowing
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Biceps

Produces:

  • Flexion of arm at the elbow

Example:

  • Bending the arm to throw a cricket ball.
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Triceps

Produces:

  • Extention of the arm at the elbow.

Example:

  • Straightening the elbow to throw a cricket ball.
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Gluteals

Produces:

  • Extention of the upper leg.

Example:

  • Running and maintaining a good posture.
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Quadriceps

Produces:

  • Extention of the leg at the knee.

Example:

  • Kicking a football.
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Hamstrings

Produces:

  • Flexion of the leg at the knee.

Example:

  • Sprinting; When a leg bends.
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Gastrocnemius

Produces:

  • Plantar flexion of the foot.

Example:

  • Running; pushes onto the toes.
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Antagonistic Pairs

Muscles working in pairs. One will contract as the other pulls to allow the joint to work. Biceps are triceps are arranged this way.

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Isometric Contractions

Isometric Contractions occur when the muscle contracts but stays in a fixed position. These are not used in sport as much as Isotonic contractions. E.G. Plank Position.

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Isotonic Contractions

This is where a muscle contracts that results in a limb movement.

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Muscle Hypertrophy

This is the scientific term for an increase in the size of muscle.

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Muscle Atrophy

The loss of muscle, mass and strength.

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