The Foreign Policy of Henry and Wolsey (Part 1)

Series of cards about the foreign policy of Wolsey and Henry VIII (Early Modern History Course). 1514-29

Part 1 -- Peace (1514-21)

  • Created by: Tiula
  • Created on: 15-03-11 22:01

New French Monarch

  • 1514 - marriage between Henry's sister Mary and French king Louis XII
  • December 1514 - Louis died (later, Mary married Charles Brandon)
  • Francis I, brother-in-law to Louis XII, inherited French throne
    • rival for Henry
    • craved personal reputation through military glory
    • in particular, wanted to renew French claims in Milan
    • much more impressive than Henry
    • Francis had an early success: Battle of Marignano, 1515
      • great military success -- compare with Henry's victory at Battle of the Spurs
      • Henry overshadowed by Francis -- jealousy 
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The Peace Treaties

  • Treaty of Noyon, 1516
    • peace treaty between the new Spanish king, Charles, and Francis I
    • danger of isolation for England -- no ally
  • Anglo-French Treaty of London, 1518
    • England returned Tournay to France
    • Wolsey to get pension of £1,200, and extra pension for Henry
    • Princess Mary betrothed to Dauphin (heir to throne of France)
    • "a considerable achievement" -- Wernham
    • "That the French were prepared to pay so much is evidence for the success of Henry and Wolsey's foreign policy" -- Gwyn
  • The Treaty of Universal Peace, 1518
    • Pope Leo X wanted to gather support for a crusade (which never happened)
    • general atmosphere of war-weariness
    • participants to live in peace
    • no aid or asylum to rebels
    • all states to declare war on an aggressor within one month
    • "best deed that was ever done for the realm of England" -- Fox
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The Imperial Election

Election for the post of Holy Roman Emperor:

  • Charles V of Spain
  • Francis I of France
  • Henry VIII -- never a serious candidate, but competed for honour and to be seen by others
  • Frederick of Saxony -- one of the Seven Electors

"Henry was kept in the limelight by a brief but respectable run in the election for the imperial crown" -- Gunn

Victory for Charles V

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Wolsey and Henry the Peacemakers, 1520

  • series of 3-power conferences kept England at the heart of European affairs
  • May 1520 -- Charles visited England
  • June 1520 -- Henry and Francis met at Field of Cloth of Gold
    • glory in peace
    • huge temporary palaces built
    • but "these men... cordially detest each other" -- Venetian ambassador
  • July 1520 -- Henry met Charles at Gravelines
    • Charles reluctant for war, as there were revolts in Spain, but by 1521 he was more confident
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