Mass production and theconsumer society
The invention of the steam engine by James Watt in 1765 marked the beginning of the 'industrial revolution', which fundamentally changed life world-wide.
Industrialisation and specialism led to change in production, the workforce, transportation and infrastructure.
Many new fields of design were needed to accomodate this and the professional designer came into being.
Population explosions occured in towns and cities where production was centred and a new urban way of life was created.
Expensive and time-consuming crafted work could now be replaced by machine work.
Products once exclusively for the rich could now be made at an affordable price for ordinary working people.