For a business to be more productive
For a business to be more productive, either more workers must be brought in or exsiting workers have to work harder or longer. The business may also change hours or time worked, type of job and even location.
For the business to improve quality
For the business to improve quality, it might mean new systems or different ways of working. It may mean training in new attitudes for quality.
For the business to compete better
For the business to compete better, it may require new technology. Automation and computerisation of processes have removed many 'traditinal' jobs, but new roles, connected with the new technology, have been created.
Changes in both the products sold and distribution
Changes in both the products sold and distribution methods affect many employees. e.g. many retailers now sell online as well as on the highs treet (a brick and clicks' operation). Sometimes the online elemtn has become more importnats an dretail premises have closed.
Advantages to the business include not having to pay for high rents and rates.
Jobs such as call centre workers can even be moved abroad to keep costs down. Many UK call centres are now based in India.
Changes have meant more flexibility and redundancy
For workers these changes have meant more flexibility and redundancy or less job security in others. Change now such a force that workers no longer think of a 'job for life' but may take up deveral different jobs or careers during their working life. They will therefore need to keep retraining as part of a 'lifelong learning' culture. (Topic 13)