- 'Fifth way'
- Non rational beings act in a way that leads to the best result
- Aquinas EG: Arrow and archer.
- QUOTE: "non rational beings cannot move towards an end unless it is being directed by a being endowed with knowledge and intellegence"
- Non rational arrow direct to thier Telos by rational source, just as non intellegent arrow is directed by intellegent archer; non rational beings are directed by God
- EG: Grey whales: Travel 20,000 miles to breeding grounds, uninteligant so cant do it without guidance, someone must be leading them their
- Their behaviour patterns rarely change, result is always benifical, non rational beings must have a purpose, someone must be directing them to it.
- Based on benifical order:
- Many things work towards a purpose, this doesnt happen by chance
- Benifical order cannot be explained because the unvierse is not self-explanatory and doesnt show intellegence in its own right
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- Teleological Based on the greek word Telos (end/purpose), searching for the meaning& purpose in our universe
- Related to the progress of the world&its path towards the end goal
- 2 different forms:
- 1. anological: comparing 2 things to fidn similarites and differences
- 2. inductive: premise support the conclusion
- 5 Key features of the worlds design:
- 1. Sutiability ideal conditions for human life
- 2. Beauty
- made for more than just survial
- 3. Order
- regularites in objects and law
- 4. Benifits more than just orderly structure, provides everything for humans
- 5. Purpose universe is full of ambicious beings, universe is working towards an ultimate purpose
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- Anology of a watch
- if you came across a watch you would know it has been,
- QUOTE: "framed and put together for a purpose" not come about by chance.
- Compares complexity of living things to infior complexity of a watch
- Just as a watch cannot exisist without a watch maker, living things cannot exist without a creator. All parts unite to fulfil function and unity that cannot be explained by chance
- World also like a machine: intrictate parts that work towards an end for the benifit of the world as a whole
- Small adaptations in nature to aid survial EG: birds wings for flight, gills for fish are proof of designing intellegence
- Payley's EG: human eye, cant have evolved as its purpose was always to see, if any aspects were different it could not have worked. Only created by a very intellegnet designer, this is God
- Key principle: Like causes produce like effects: what is true of human designers producing inventions in our world is also true of God creating the far more complex universe.
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- Evidence of design and order increases the probability of God
- Given universes size how can it behave in such a coherent way?
- explaining the regularities in terms of other regularties would lead to infinite chain with no real explanation
- we could explain them as "Brute facts" but this wouldnt be sufficient
- some things can be answered by science but we should look for another solution as:
- "there is a complexity, particularity and finitude about the universe that cries out for an explanation"
- An "omnipotent" being would be able to produce a world in these respects, this is God.
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Inductive: Providential universe
- Design is also evident not just because of order and purpose but as it provides everything humans need for survival
- Works on the prinicple that: its been designed so mankind can regin supreme and natural laws function within so man can
- QUOTE: "contribute to its development and maintance"
- Arguement of probabilty: likelyhood that God exsists is greater than the probability he doesnt
- AE TAYLOR:
- nature has catered in advance for needs of animals and humans, but intelegence is needed to explain the "improbable state of affairs"
- Mind cannot be explained by evolution itself, since evolution needs a mind to create it
- Humans cannot be explained by just evolution as they dont just adapt to the enviroment
- QUOTE: "they transform it"
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Inductive: Asthetic arguement
- Universe posses beauty that is not essential for life
- Nature is "saturated" with beauty
- nothing to do with evolution as it has "no survial value"
- Evidence for designing intellegence as it has no other purpose other than to be asthetically pleasing
- EG: beautiful sunsets or waterfalls
- Like swinburne tennant has
- cumilative arguement:
- Once aspects have been identified exsistance of a designer is more proable than not
- QUOTE: never accept beauty as " outcome of random activity"
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Inductive: Anthropic Principle
- Dont reject science as it can work alongside religion
- God planned key scienctific theories himself to make human life flourish
- QUOTE: "accidents of physics and astrology have worked together for our benifit"
- suggesting unvierse has always been preparing for human life
- Doesnt dismiss evolution and agrees human life was dependant on "certain primary conditions"
- but this didnt come about by "coincidence" but God had arranged them
- The big bang theory is the means in which the designer brought the universe to its common state
- The order in which the universe formed was beyond chance and
- QUOTE: "common sense is not foolish in suspecting the dice may have been loaded"
- world was intentionally created by an intellegent designer, this being God.
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