The Third Age

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  • Created by: _laurenb
  • Created on: 02-04-16 23:54

Ageing on the Peripheral Nervous System

SIGHT

Cataracts

lens becomes cloudy; can be replaced with an articifial one; blurred vision, sensitivity to light; less light enters = less light for cone cells = poor colour vision; poor night vision

Open-angle Glaucoma

blocked aqueous fluid drainage channels; pressure in eye increases; eye drops to decrease pressure/open up drainage channels; laser treatment/operation if ineffective; damages optic nerve; tunnel vision; reduced field of vision

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Ageing on the Peripheral Nervous System

  • the peripheral nerves conduct signals more slowly
  • the response to injury is slower
  • the self-repair system of the nerves is slower/incomplete =
  • more vulnerable to injury and disease

HEARING

  • the sensory hair cells in the cochlea die
  • the neurones of the auditory nerve die
  • high-pitched sounds difficult to understand

older people can feel isolated and frustrated that they cannot socialise as they used to...

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Ageing on the Peripheral Nervous System

Closed-angle Glaucoma

edge of iris and cornea meet at an angle; drainage fluids are blocked into the corner of this angle; aqueous fluid builds up; medicine to reduce pressure; laser treatment/surgery; headaches, blurred vision, vomiting

Age-related Macular Degeneration

damage to macula within retina

WET AMD: blood vessels grow in the macula area and leak; reduction in central vision; laser treatment

DRY AMD: arteries that supply the macula with nutrients and oxygen are blocked; reduction in central vision; wearing powerful glasses; using bright lights to read; using magnifying glasses

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Ageing on the Brain

  • decrease in brain weight
  • decrease in brain volume (hippocampus and frontal lobe in particular)
  • decrease in thickness of the cortex (due to a decrease in synaptic connections)
  • white matter decreases (containing the myelin, which aids communication between brain cells)
  • = decreased memory, attention, action problem-solving and decision making
  • increase in size of ventricular system
  • less neurotransmitters are generated

HOW TO REDUCE MENTAL FUNCTIONING... age, lack of social interaction, an unhealthy diet, a lack of mental stimulation

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The Role of Hormones in Reproduction

FSH

causes follicles to mature in the ovaries; causes the release of oestrogen

OESTROGEN

stops oestrogen from being produced; stimulates the release of LH from the pituitary gland

PROGESTERONE

maintains the lining of the uterus

TESTOSTERONE

stimuates spermatogenesis; stimulates secretion from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland

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The Menopause

THREE STAGES:

peri-menopausal (during) --> menopausal --> post-menopausal (after)

DURING MENOPAUSE:

  • FSH production levels increase
  • Progesterone and oestrogen production levels decrease
  • Menstruation is irregular
  • Mood swings, hot flushes, fatigue, memory loss, sleep disturbance, anxiety

the female will experience a reduced reproduction capacity...

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Alternatives to HRT

PHYTO-ESTROGENS

  • found naturally in germinating plants
  • three types: isoflavones, lignans and coumestans
  • competitive inhibition occurs with oestrogen - binds to oestrogen receptor sites
  • cancers reliant on oestrogen may be cured

ANTIOXIDANTS

  • fight against the free radicals produced by metabolism and the environment (tobacco smoke etc.)
  • found in vitamins A, C and E
  • decrease the risk of cancer
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The Menopause

AFTER MENOPAUSE

  • ******l dryness and irritation
  • atrophy of the outer reproductive organs (****** etc.)
  • size of fallopian tubes and ovaries decreases
  • oestrogen is no longer produced
  • low levels of progesterone are produced

OESTROGEN PREVENTS EXCESSIVE LEVELS OF BLOOD CHOLESTEROL!

  • blood cholesterol increases = CHD
  • body fat increase
  • calcium loss = decrease in bone density = osteoporosis
  • less bone mass and more body fat = change in body composition
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The Effect of Aging on the Male

DECREASE IN THE...

  • number of sperm
  • frequency of sperm
  • viability of sperm
  • rigidity of erections
  • levels of testosterone =
  • libido of the male
  • amount of ejaculate
  • sensitivity of the *****
  • reproductive capacity is reduced
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Hormone Replacement Therapy

...helping to reduce both the long term and short term effects of menopause

TYPES:

CYCLIC

oestrogen -> introduce progestin between days 10-14 -> take until day 25 -> take nothing for 3-5 days - bleed will occur

COMBINED

oestrogen -> introduced progestin for 10-14 days -> stop progestin - bleed will occur

CONTINUAL

oestrogen + progestin continously - no bleed intended

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Side Effects of HRT

  • abdomen cramps
  • fluid retention
  • nausea
  • tenderness
  • changes in weight
  • enlargement of the breasts
  • rashes
  • breast cancer
  • endometrial cancer
  • ovarian cancer
  • deep vein thrombosis
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Alternative Ways to Receive HRT

1. Patch

applied to abdomen/thigh; releases oestrogen straight into bloodstream; not broken down by liver; faster transmission

2. Mirena

IUD-like; releases hormones straight into uterus; small amount of progestin; no pills

3. Vaginal cream

oestrogen-containing; applied straight to ******; no pills; does not help with oesteoporosis etc.

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The Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

a degenerative disease (deterioration of the structure and function of the tisusues) of the nervous system...

THREE OVERLAPPING STAGES:

1. EARLY memory loss is noticeable

2. MID-STAGE mental ability declines; personality changes; dependant on caregivers; can't communicate

3. LATE-STAGE constant supervision; total dependance on others; cannot use language or swallow; paranoia and delusions

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The Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease

NEUROFIBILLARY TANGLES

formed of Tau protein; forms blockages within the neurons

SENILE PLAQUES

formed of B-amyloid from outside the neurons

CAUSED BY

age, family history, severe head injuries, the gene responsible for the production of B-amyloid (found in excess in Down's sufferers); smoking; high blood pressure; high cholesterol

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Ageing on the Skeletal System

  • osteoclast activity (bone production) decreases, but osteoclast acivitity (bone reabsorption) stays the same = loss in bone mass
  • bones break more easily
  • bones are not repaired as easily
  • vertebrae collapses = Dowager's hump (more pressure on spine)
  • verterbral discs of the spine shrink

compressed discs + bone mass loss = loss in height (curving of the thoracic spine)

  • osteoporsis (less dense bone is more likely to be fractured)
  • osteoarthiritis

PREVENTION OF OSTEOPOROSIS: don't smoke; don't drink excessively; consume a lot o vit D and calcium; exercise; prevent falls; replace oestrogen with HRT during menopause

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Detection of Osteoporosis

USING DEXA

a type of scanning that uses x-rays to determine the density of the bones

IF BONE MASS IS LOW, OSTEOPOROSIS IS SIGNALLED (it is just 'porous bones' after all...)

USING ULTRASOUND

using the heel bone to detemine bone density

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Ageing on the Cardiovascular System

IN THE ARTERIES

  • less elasticity
  • artherosclerosis (a deposit of fatty materials in the arteries)
  • astersclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
  • increased blood pressure, causing blood to be short on oxygen... a stroke can result

IN THE HEART

  • cardiac output reduces, especially when movements are sudden
  • the heart's responses are slower and not as forceful
  • the coronary arteries (CA) narrow... why do they need to be wide when less blood is travelling through them?
  • Hypertension, where the left ventricle works harder than the right, thickening and hardening the valves
  • the number of pacemaker cells decreases

= heart murmers, blood not pumped efficiently, myocardial infarction, heart  unable to control its rate, slower circulation, restriction of the blood to the cardiac muscles due to narrowing of CA

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The Effects of an Ageing Population

The baby boom has caused a load of children around the same age group.

These children will, in 2025, have grown up to be pensioners and will outweight the number of adults in society.

THIS WILL CAUSE...

  • an increase in the number of dependant older people... there may be too many to care for
  • a reduction in the earning power and productivity of the economy
  • a decrease in the size of workforces = lower quality of work
  • taxes and expenditure may increase to care for the elderly
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Ageing on the Respiratory System

LUNGS

  • smoking, pollution and respiratory infections damage the lungs over time
  • this reduces their elasticity = less effective

RIBS

  • arthritic changes (inflammation of the joints in the rib cage)
  • = rib cage does not move as freely for breathing

respiration is rarely affected unless infection prevails

RESULTS

  • decrease in vital capacity, functional reserve capacity, the volume of air expired in 1 second ad the peak fall expiratory flow rate; increase in the residual volume

EMPHYSEMA, BRONCHITIS AND PNEUMONIA (often a complication of influenza) ARE MORE COMMON IN THE ELDERLY

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Comments

Redsugar

hi, how can I print these flashcards?

Pete Langley - Get Revising founder

Use the 'printable pdf' option under the cards.

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