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Failure to ovulate, by abnormal menstrual cycle Sperm may be abnormal and may fail to develop
or insufficient hormone levels. correctly in the testes, eg. No tails
Blockage of the oviducts (eg. bacterial function) Semen may contain low number of sperm cells.
Not enough for efficient fertilizing.
Endometriosis ­ uterine lining develops outside Some men also produce antibodies into their
the uterus causes blockage of oviducts. own semen, which destroy the sperm.
Anti-sperm antibodies may develop ­ destrpys
sperm before it reaches the egg.…read more

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1. ovulation induction
2. Artificial insemination
3. In vitro fertilisation
4. Frozen embryo replacement
5. Gamete intrafallopian transfer.
6. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
7. Sperm banks/donor sperm.…read more

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Polycystic ovarian syndrome ­ woman
produce follicle which do not fully develop to
form viable eggs.
Women take drugs which act to inhibit oestrogen. This
promotes GnRH and therefore stimulates the release of FSH
and LH. The induces ovulation and helps develop immature
· High risk of multiple pregnancies.…read more

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This involves injecting semen
to the top of the vagina or the
uterus through a small plastic
ICI ­ intra-cervical insemination
the semen is collected and insemination occurs within 2
hours at the top of the vagina. A plastic cap is often placed
in the vagina to give sperm the chance to enter the uterus
through the cervix.
IUI ­ intra uterine insemination places sperm near the oviduct
(treatment is more successful) semen rather than sperm is
inserted into the uterususin a thin plastic tube passing
through the cervix…read more

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· During the IVF process, eggs are removed
from the ovaries and fertilised with sperm in
the laboratory. The fertilised egg (embryo) is
later placed in the woman's womb, as a
1. Woman is super-ovulated.
2. Ultrasound locates ripe follicle.
3. Follicles are sucked out and placed into a
special medium.
4. Maintain at body temperature in sperated
test tubes.
5. Sperm prepared, at least 10,000 added to
each oocyte.
6. Embryos left in incubator for 2-3days.
7. Transplanted back into the uterus.…read more

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