- Created by: miaalvarezxo
- Created on: 14-05-19 10:41
The First Protectorate Parliament, 1654-55
As Lord Protector, Cromwell wanted to enact a 'reformation of manners' by improving moral behaviour.
- 84 ordinances were issued pertaining to moral behaviour and improving local government and infrastructure.
- Bear-baiting and ****-fighting were banned.
- Postal services were improved.
- The maintenance of roads was prioritised.
- Laws to prohibit blasphemy and drunkenness.
Cromwell faced the same fundamental problems as the Rump. Concern for the army was his priority. A number of republican MPs refused to recognise the Instrument of Government because of his preference for the military.
Dissolved January 1655.
The Major Generals, 1655-56
Penruddock's Rising: In the spring of 1655, a Royalist rising led by John Penruddock brock out in Wiltshire, and though it was easily defeated, Cromwell decided that it showed greater control of the provinces was needed.
- centralised military rule- 'rule by the sword'
- 11 districts under the command of a Major-General
- responsible for local government and security, and reformation of manners
- supported by a new militia to be paid for by a 10% tax on the estates of the Royalists
Reasons for failure
- mixed effectiveness of the government of the generals
- In Lancashire, 200 ale houses were closed down
- Lincolnshire, plays and horse racing banned
- replacement of local elites by outsiders was not popular; low social standing of generals caused resentment
- Cromwell wanted 'healing and settling'
The Second Protectorate Parliament, 1656
- Elections held in the summer of 1656.
- The Council of State excluded 100 known opponents of one-man rule.
- more compliant Parliament passed social reform Acts aimed at improving the efficiency of poor relief and more employment.
The Humble Petition and Advice
The rule of the Major Generals was unpopular, Cromwell saw the need to compromise and to accept the idea of a new constitution. This was a constitutional document offered to Cromwell:
- Government by a king (changed to Lord Protector when Cromwell rejected the crown)
- The Lords and Commons to govern with the ruler
- Hereditary succession
- Parliament to control the army, and officers of the state to be approved by Parliament
- Regular election and limited religious toleration.
By offering Cromwell the crown, his MPs were attempting to restore a system where the powers and privileges of the leader were established and known, rather than another experimental government.
Why did Cromwell decline the crown?
- He was concerned about how the army would react.
- A number of officers made it clear they wouldn't support him if he took the crown.
- Didn't want to give Parliament more influence.
- Not apart of God's plan.
- Would have made him a usurper.