The post war division of Germany- in dates and statistics


The Creation of a Soviet Zone after 1949

The soviet zone consisted of 5 German states.

The allies agreed to separate Germany into 4 zones. 

22 nazis put on trial in 1946

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Political situation and formation of the SED

1945 there was a void left by nazis- lack of direction + resentment between zones. 

Soviet Military Admin (SMAD) formed June 1945

SMAD had 50,000 Soviet and German members by Nov 1945 

Responsible in 4 areas - military affairs, economy, civil admin and political Qs 

June 1945 SMAD authorised political parties 

Merger proposed between KDD and SPD - SED formed 1946

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The conditions in the Soviet Zone

Post war ratio of men to women 100:135

1945-1947   2 mil women sexually assaulted

Around 1,500 industrial plants and half of all East German railway tracks taken as reparations. 

total cost of reparations 1945-1954 = 54 bil Ostmarks 

reparations ceased Jan 1954

Land reforms of sep 1945 - all nazi landowners lost land, 33% given to peasants 

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Growing divisions amongst allies

Marshall Plan introduced in June 1947 - GDR declined aid, worsening its economy relative to the west. 

1948 Russian representative walked out of ACC over discussion of Deutschmark

1948 communist takeover of Czechoslovakia hightened tensions

1947 - 1948 Bizonia and Trizonia highlighted divisions 

Berlin Blockade lasted for a year starting in June 1948 and ending in May 1949

In total 2,325,808 tons of resources flown into Berlin 

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The Formation of the GDR

FRG created before GDR in May 1949

Electing members to the people's congress in May 1949 involved the use of a single list of candidates - only 66% approved of this. 

A draft constitution made and new state announced 7th October 1949

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