The Development of the European Union

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  • Created on: 01-04-19 19:16

Development of the European Union: Stage 1

1. The European Coal and Steel Community was established in 1952. 

The founding members were France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg. 

It was a supranational organisation which had decision-making authority independent of its member states. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 2

2. The European Economic Community (EEC) was formed in 1958

The six founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community formed the EEC under the Treaty of Rome (1957).

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) began in 1962 and a customs union followed in 1968 when internal tariff barriers were removed and a common external tariff was created.

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Development of the European Union: Stage 3

3. Enlargement occurred when the UK, Ireland and Denmark joined the EEC in 1973. 

Enlargement continued when Greece (1981), Spain and Portugal (1986) also joined. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 4

4. The Single European Act was agreed in 1985.

It came into force in 1987. It created the single European market and prompted a greater Community role in social and regional policy.

Unanimity was replaced by qualified majority voting on single market legislation.

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Development of the European Union: Stage 5

5. The Maastricht Treaty was agreed in 1991. 

It came into force in 1993 and it created the European Union (EU) and set a timetable for economic and monetary union (EMU).

It also increased intergovernmental cooperation in foreign and security policy, and in justice and home affairs. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 6

6. The Amsterdam Treaty was agreed in 1997.

It came into force in 1999 and established an 'area of freedom, security and justice'. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 7

7. An economic and monetary union was established in 1999. 

11 states abolished their national currencies and adopted the euro. 

The Eurozone had expanded to 19 states by 2016. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 8

8. The Nice Treaty was agreed in 2001.

It came into force in 2003 and created a European security and defence policy and introduced institutional reforms. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 9

9. Enlargement occurred when 10 states joined in 2004. 

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Estonia

Hungary

Latvia/Lithuania 

Malta

Poland

Slavakia

Slovenia 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 10

10. The Lisbon Treaty was agreed in 2007.

This followed the rejection of the EU Constitutional Treaty in referendums in France and the Netherlands. 

The treaty came into force in 2009 and further reformed EU institutions. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 11

11. A sovereign debt crisis began in 2009.

After runnig up large debts, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Portugal and Cyprus were bailed out by the EU and International Monetary Fund.

In turn, they were required to introduce austerity measures. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 12

12. A migrant crisis began in 2015. 

Large numbers of people, many of them refugees fleeing from conflict, began crossing the Mediterranean or travelling through southern Europe to reach countries of the EU. 

New EU measures to tackle migrant smugling and relocate the record number of asylum seekers (1.2 million in 2015) have had a limited impact. 

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Development of the European Union: Stage 13

13. In 2016, the UK voted for Brexit in a referendum. 

The UK will become the first member state to leave the EU. 

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