Textiles Technology

Fibres and Fabrics

6 R's

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6 R's

Reduce - Which parts are not needed? Do we need as much material? Can we simplify the product?

Reuse - Which parts can I use again? Has it another valuable use without processing it?

Recycle - How easy is it to take apart? How can the parts be used again? How much energy to reprocess parts?

Rethink - How can it do the job better? Is it energy-efficient? Has it been designed for disassembly?

Repair - Which parts can be replaced? Which parts are going to fail? How easy is it to replace parts?

Refuse - Is it neccesary? Is it going to last? Is it fair trade? Is it unfashionable to be trendy and too costly to be stylish?

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Fibres and Fabrics - Wool

Natural Fibres - Animal

Source - Grows on sheep

Physical properties - Absorbent but does not feel wet, doesn't crease, warm, not very strong

Appearance - Small fibres that make fluffy fabrics

Uses - Suits, sweaters, socks, scarves, blankets, carpets

Fabric names - Flannel, felt, tweed, serge

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Fibres and Fabrics - Silk

Natural Fibres - Animal

Source - The cocoon of a Mulberry caterpillar

Physical properties - Absorbent, strong, durable, doesn't crease, warm/cool to wear, shiny surface, weak when wet

Appearance - Long fibres give smooth, shiny appearance

Uses - Underwear, scarves, dresses, blouses, flowers, ties

Fabric names - Chiffon, satin, taffeta, damask, organza

Damaged by - Deodorants, perspiration

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Fibres and Fabrics - Cotton

Natural Fibres - Vegetable/Plant

Source - Grows on plants in hot, wet climates

Physical properties - Absorbent, strong, resists abrasion, durable, creases easily, cool when worn, dries slowly

Appearance - Fibres are 15-50mm long, fabrics tend to be slightly fluffy

Uses - Underwear, bedding, nightwear, t-shirts, shirts, dresses, jeans, towels, handkerchiefs

Fabric names - Denim, poplin, terry towel, velvet, corduroy, chintz

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Fibres and Fabrics - Linen

Natural Fibres - Vegetable/Plant

Source - The stem of flax plants that grow in wet climates

Physical properties - Absorbent, strong, resists abrasion, durable, creases easily, cool when worn, dries slowly

Appearance - Fibres are 25-40mm, fabric is a smooth and slightly shiny surface

Uses - Tablecloths, jackets, skirts, trousers, suit, handkerchiefs

Fabric names - Duck, holland, huckaback, crash

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Fibres and Fabrics - Viscose

Manufactured Fibres - Regenerated

Source - Regenerated fibre made from wood pulp

Physical properties - Absorbent, creases, warm, not very strong, not very durable

Appearance - Can be shiny or matte depending on the shape of the fibre, can be engineered to look like cotton, wool or linen

Uses - Lining fabrics, shirts, dresses

Fabric names - Flannel, felt, tweed, serge

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Fibres and Fabrics - Polyester

Manufactured Fibres - Synthetic

Source - Synthetic fabric made form crude oil and coal

Physical properties - Absorbent, strong, durable, doesn't crease, not warm, thermoplastic, holds static

Appearance - Can be made to be shiny or matte depending on the shap of the fibre

Uses - Suits, dresses, shirts, rainwear, ties, scarves, work wear

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Fibres and Fabrics - Nylon

Manufactured fibres - Synthetic

Source - Synthetic fibre made from crude oil and coal

Physical properties - Not absorbent, strong, durable, doesn't crease, not warm, thermoplastic, holds static

Appearance - Can be made shiny or matte depending on the shape of the fibre

Uses - Carpets, shirts, dresses, jackets, suits, bags, umbrellas

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Fibres and Fabrics - Acrylic

Manufactured fibres - Synthetic

Source - Synthetic fibre made from crude oil and coal

Physical properties - Not absorbent, not as strong or durable as Nylon and Polyester, doesn't crease, thermoplastic, holds static, pills

Appearance - Fabrics ternd to be slightly fluffy

Uses - Sweaters, blankets, imitation fur, furnishings, socks

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Fibres and Fabrics - Elastomeric (LYCRA)

Manufactured fibres - Synthetic

Source - Synthetic fibre made from crude oil and coal

Physical properties - Strong, doesn't crease, dries quickly, very stretchy, lightweight

Appearance - Elastic fibre that is never used on its own, used either bare, covered or wrapped

Uses - Sportswear, leggings jeans, underwear, socks, swimwear

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