Terminology - inc Talk in Life and Talk in Literature

Revision cards of English Terminology - inc Talk in Life and Talk in Literature.

Also some Theories / Frameworks

and some ideas within the crucible

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Non-fluency features

Non – fluent pauses Middle of grammatical structure e.g (.) may exist to allow   the speaker to consider his/her next utterance

Hesitations (Voiced pause)- e.g. 'erm', 'um', 'ah' and 'er'

Fillers - live conversation – keep flow of speech e.g'erm', 'like', 'sorta

Unintended Repetition e.g ‘I I put – I put’ , ‘for for’ ‘to (.) to’

Recycling produce 1st sound / phoneme – not whole word e.g. ‘I’m ju- just’ ‘c-come’

False starts - begin to formulate our utterances but then stop to think 

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Turn-taking

Turn transfer cues -  stop at a point of grammatical completion or nomination   e.g a Tag question – ‘isn’t that right Betty?’

Overlaps - unintentional overlap & deliberate interruption – speaker/s compete.

Latching on begin exactly as previous speaker ends. No pause or overlap.

Skip connecting -  skip over others utterances and continue topic.

Adjacency pairs e.g greeting & greeting / Question & answer.

*** context sometimes we interrupt because we are confident – do not need to wait for a turn = cooperative.

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Purpose of talk in life

Expressive - revealing feelings and emotions e.g. "I'm really annoyed"

Phatic - for interaction, being polite, showing interest e.g. "How's it going?"

Evaluative - e.g. "What a great song" or “X is better than Y "

Expository - explaining theories or ideas

Instructive - giving clear instructions

Persuasive -

Collaborative - agreeing and showing co-operation and solidarity

Transactional - language used to obtain goods, services or ideas

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Interactional Features

Initiations words to begin our turn / start new topic  e.g. ‘well’

Continuers Hold the speaker role, link utterances. E.g ‘and then, but, cos’

  also for sequencing / getting back to the point e.g ‘anyway’

Monitring -  Reassure spearer that we are paying attention / agree – listener feedback   e.g. ‘yeah , sure , mm , hum’

Self monitoring check listener is following – said like questions or appeals, e.g. ‘yeah? Right? You see?’

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Purpose of talk in literature

authorial purpose & overall purpose of the text

Purposes can include:

creating or revealing character

advancing the plot or narrative

describing a place or situation

conveying mood/emotion or creating atmosphere

expression opinions/beliefs

addressing the audience and inviting empathy/sympathy and some involvement

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Ideas within the Crucible

Hubris; excessive pride

Catharsis; emotional outporing – through which we feel clensed (esp, John Proctor's confesstion)

Charic/ chorus; voice/ narrative voice – introduced tragedy

Proxemics; location on stage (set & character positioning)

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Shortening words

Contraction: a reduced form often marked by an apostrophe in writing e.g. can't = cannot

Elision: the omission or slurring of one or more sounds e.g. gonna = going to, wassup = what is up

Abbreviation: a shortened form of words used to represent the whole e.g. 'Dr' from 'Doctor‘

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Utterance

Interrogative: (question) "What did she say?"

 

Declarative: (statement) "I can't stand people who agree with you all the time."

 

Imperative: (command) "Well, do something."

 

Exclamative: (exclamation) "That boy!"

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Other key terms to remember

Sociolect- the dialect of a particular social class

Idiolect- the speech habits peculiar to a particular person

Prosodic features- e.g. intonation (rise & fall), volume, speed, facial expression.

Paralinguistic features – through body language.

Tag question- a question converted from a statement e.g. it's nice out, isn't it?

Discourse markers Words and phrases to signal the relationship and connections between utterances  e.g. 'first', 'on the other hand', 'now', 'what's more', 'so anyway'

Hedge - soften or weaken the force with which something is said e.g. ‘perhaps, maybe, sort of, possibly, I think’

Modal verbs -

  Deontic = imperative e.g ‘must , go, can’

  Epistemic = suggestive e.g. ‘may, could, should

Situated identity- to take on different roles in different settings 

Synthetic personalisation-  addressing mass audiences as though they were individuals through inclusive language usage.

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Grice's Maxims

Quantity: don't say too much or little

Quality: be truthful

Relevance: keep to the point

Manner: speak in a clear, coherent and orderly way

Flout =  for the deliberate departure e.gif a person avoids answering a question and makes an irrelevant comment.

Violate = for an apparently unintentional departure e.gif a person gives too much information, or seems to be rambling on in an irrelevant way, the listener might infer that the speaker is lonely or needs to talk

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Positive & Negative Face

Positive Face

The desire to be appreciated & respected by other people.

Hairdresser à ‘well, it’s different’

Disappointing presants à oh! Thank you (cover unfulfilled expectations)

Expected complement à yes but… (pseudo agreement)

Shop assistant role à maybe something else (good service – care & attention provided)

Negative Face

The right not to be imposed on / forced to do something.

To mitigate on imposition, one uses negative politeness.

e.g. I missed the lesson, (reason)please (politeness marker)could I copy your notes. (question)

e.g. I don’t suppose… (pessimism)

e.g. er… you could… um (hedging)

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Ladov’s Narrative framework

Narrative can be divided into;

Abstract -(signals story is to begin) Orientation - (context – w,w,w,w) Action - (‘what happened’) Resolution - (what finally happened) Coda - (signals end – link back to present situation) Evaluation – (comments ect;)

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Some Types of Comedy

Anecdotal: comic personal stories that may be true or partly true but embellished.

Bathos: drop of mood – serious - mundane

Bawdiness: loud, OTP, sexual

Burlesque: Ridicules by imitating with caricature, or exaggerated characterization.

High/highbrow: Humour pertaining to cultured, sophisticated themes.

Ironic: Humour involving incongruity and discordance with norms, in which the intended meaning is opposite, or nearly opposite, to the literal meaning.

Juvenile/sophomoric: Humour involving childish themes such as pranks & name-calling.

Misrule: Chaos

Satirical: Humour that mocks human weaknesses or aspects of society.

Self-deprecating: Humour in which performers target themselves and their foibles or misfortunes for comic effect.

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Comments

AleighaOldham1

Great notes, useful when analysing the "Paris Anthology" at AS/A-Level

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