Non – fluent pauses – Middle of grammatical structure e.g (.) may exist to allow the speaker to consider his/her next utterance
Hesitations (Voiced pause)- e.g. 'erm', 'um', 'ah' and 'er'
Fillers - live conversation – keep flow of speech e.g. 'erm', 'like', 'sorta‘
Unintended Repetition – e.g ‘I I put – I put’ , ‘for for’ ‘to (.) to’
Recycling – produce 1st sound / phoneme – not whole word e.g. ‘I’m ju- just’ ‘c-come’
False starts - begin to formulate our utterances but then stop to think
Turn transfer cues - stop at a point of grammatical completion or nomination e.g a Tag question – ‘isn’t that right Betty?’
Overlaps - unintentional overlap & deliberate interruption – speaker/s compete.
Latching on – begin exactly as previous speaker ends. No pause or overlap.
Skip connecting - skip over others utterances and continue topic.
Adjacency pairs – e.g greeting & greeting / Question & answer.
*** context – sometimes we interrupt because we are confident – do not need to wait for a turn = cooperative.
Purpose of talk in life
Expressive - revealing feelings and emotions e.g. "I'm really annoyed"
Phatic - for interaction, being polite, showing interest e.g. "How's it going?"
Evaluative - e.g. "What a great song" or “X is better than Y "
Expository - explaining theories or ideas
Instructive - giving clear instructions
Collaborative - agreeing and showing co-operation and solidarity
Transactional - language used to obtain goods, services or ideas
Initiations – words to begin our turn / start new topic e.g. ‘well’
Continuers – Hold the speaker role, link utterances. E.g ‘and then, but, cos’
also for sequencing / getting back to the point e.g ‘anyway’
Monitring - Reassure spearer that we are paying attention / agree – listener feedback e.g. ‘yeah , sure , mm , hum’
Self monitoring – check listener is following – said like questions or appeals, e.g. ‘yeah? Right? You see?’
Purpose of talk in literature
authorial purpose & overall purpose of the text
Purposes can include:
creating or revealing character
advancing the plot or narrative
describing a place or situation
conveying mood/emotion or creating atmosphere
addressing the audience and inviting empathy/sympathy and some involvement
Ideas within the Crucible
Hubris; excessive pride
Catharsis; emotional outporing – through which we feel clensed (esp, John Proctor's confesstion)
Charic/ chorus; voice/ narrative voice – introduced tragedy
Proxemics; location on stage (set & character positioning)
Contraction: a reduced form often marked by an apostrophe in writing e.g. can't = cannot
Elision: the omission or slurring of one or more sounds e.g. gonna = going to, wassup = what is up
Abbreviation: a shortened form of words used to represent the whole e.g. 'Dr' from 'Doctor‘
Interrogative: (question) "What did she say?"
Declarative: (statement) "I can't stand people who agree with you all the time."
Imperative: (command) "Well, do something."
Exclamative: (exclamation) "That boy!"
Other key terms to remember
Sociolect- the dialect of a particular social class
Idiolect- the speech habits peculiar to a particular person
Prosodic features- e.g. intonation (rise & fall), volume, speed, facial expression.
Paralinguistic features – through body language.
Tag question- a question converted from a statement e.g. it's nice out, isn't it?
Discourse markers Words and phrases to signal the relationship and connections between utterances e.g. 'first', 'on the other hand', 'now', 'what's more', 'so anyway'
Hedge - soften or weaken the force with which something is said e.g. ‘perhaps, maybe, sort of, possibly, I think’
Modal verbs -
Deontic = imperative e.g ‘must , go, can’
Epistemic = suggestive e.g. ‘may, could, should’
Situated identity- to take on different roles in different settings
Synthetic personalisation- addressing mass audiences as though they were individuals through inclusive language usage.
Quantity: don't say too much or little
Quality: be truthful
Relevance: keep to the point
Manner: speak in a clear, coherent and orderly way
Flout = for the deliberate departure e.g. if a person avoids answering a question and makes an irrelevant comment.
Violate = for an apparently unintentional departure e.g. if a person gives too much information, or seems to be rambling on in an irrelevant way, the listener might infer that the speaker is lonely or needs to talk
Positive & Negative Face
The desire to be appreciated & respected by other people.
Hairdresser à ‘well, it’s different’
Disappointing presants à oh! Thank you (cover unfulfilled expectations)
Expected complement à yes but… (pseudo agreement)
Shop assistant role à maybe something else (good service – care & attention provided)
The right not to be imposed on / forced to do something.
To mitigate on imposition, one uses negative politeness.
e.g. I missed the lesson, (reason)please (politeness marker)could I copy your notes. (question)
e.g. I don’t suppose… (pessimism)
e.g. er… you could… um (hedging)
Ladov’s Narrative framework
Narrative can be divided into;
•Abstract -(signals story is to begin) •Orientation - (context – w,w,w,w) •Action - (‘what happened’) •Resolution - (what finally happened) •Coda - (signals end – link back to present situation) •Evaluation – (comments ect;)
Some Types of Comedy
Anecdotal: comic personal stories that may be true or partly true but embellished.
Bathos: drop of mood – serious - mundane
Bawdiness: loud, OTP, sexual
Burlesque: Ridicules by imitating with caricature, or exaggerated characterization.
High/highbrow: Humour pertaining to cultured, sophisticated themes.
Ironic: Humour involving incongruity and discordance with norms, in which the intended meaning is opposite, or nearly opposite, to the literal meaning.
Juvenile/sophomoric: Humour involving childish themes such as pranks & name-calling.
Satirical: Humour that mocks human weaknesses or aspects of society.
Self-deprecating: Humour in which performers target themselves and their foibles or misfortunes for comic effect.