Tectonics 2.3

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Perceptions of Hazards


  • Good Soil (Mount Etna)- Higher Yields by five times higher than national average
  • Geothermal Energy (Iceland)
  • Tourism (Japan)- People go to 'see geysers' 'relax in hot springs' 
  • Valuable Raw Materials (Chile)- Copper Mine
  • Construction- Repairs


  • Community- death / injury / homelessness
  • Community- Loss of employment
  • Disease 
  • Disruption of social and economic activity
  • Government- Pay for all damage
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Strategies to manage Volcanoes


  • tiltmeters record shifts in the ground as magma rises 
  • seisometers relay shockwave data from the tremors
  • analysis of gases
  • remote sensing (GPS) records changes in the form of a volcano 


  • Lava Spraying- Iceland 1973 prevented harbour being blocked
  • Lava Diversion- Etna- cut trench / blow up
  • Lahar Dams- Indonesia
  • Building Designs- Japan; overhanging roof/ ash resitant tiles/ window and door seals


  • hazard mapping- naples / vesuvius 
  • evacuation plan- sign posts
  • Aid (Red Cross)
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Effectiveness of Volcano Stategies

Montserrat- Successful 

  • evacuation plan worked
  • only 19 people died
  • these people were farmers who refused to leave their crops
  • red cross set up temporary schools and provided medical support and food
  • 17 million in UK Government Emergency Aid
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Strategies to manage Earthquakes


  • warnings and hazards


  • building designs- (Taipei 101 / Birds Nest) and retrofitting


  • survival kit / ES training
  • education / evacuation route
  • supplies checklist and aid (save the children)


  • early warning systems and text alerts
  • building codes
  • factory assembly lines and stopping of transport
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Effectiveness of Earthquake Strategies


  • 250,000 lives lost. same magnitude as san fran 1989 where only 63 died
  • 50% of all buildings collapsed

earthquake proof buildings 

Haiti- 250,000 lives lost 

Christchurch-181 lives lost

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