• Created by: tash
  • Created on: 13-05-13 17:52

Short-term Climate Change El Nino

  • Happens around Christmas roughly x2 per decade
  • Warmest sea is west pacific
  • This warm water evaporates and causes torrential monsoon storms
  • Warm water moves across pacific
  • In 2009 brought drought to Australia
  • Also affects fishing in Peru
  • Warm water brings torrential rains, flash flooding and mudslides to Peru 
  • When returns to normal is called La Nina
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Long-term Climate Change Milankovitch Cycles

  • Cold periods-glacials. Warmer periods-inter-glacials. Approx. 50,000 year cycles.
  • OBLIQUITY Currently tilt is 23.5 but varies between 22-24.5 - this gives seasons.
  • ECCENTRITY Circular to elliptical orbit due to Jupiter and Saturn gravitational force.
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Evidence for Climate Change

  • Instrumental date e.g thermometers. -mainly MEDCs, only since 1850s
  • Dendrochronology - study of tree rings
  • Glacial retreat e.g Gangotri in the Himalayas
  • Phenology - Seasonal changes e.g first snow drop
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Impact of Climate Change on Extreme Weather

  • Increased temperatures means more energy in the atmosphere
  • Hurricane Sandy in 2012 was the largest recorded

Hurricane Katrina:

  • Total cost $150 billion. 
  • Oil industry affected
  • 1500 died
  • Levees protecting New Orleans destoryed
  • Refugees converged on Superdrone
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Rising Sea Levels Impacts on People

  • Thermal expansion.
  • Melting of glaciers and polar ice caps
  • Tuvalu and Maldives have low lying land and salt water will damage crops and contaminate etc.
  • Thames barrier in London completed in 1980
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Variations of Impacts of Climate Change in Differe

The Arctic:

  • Ice caps melting, polar bears cannot hunt seals
  • Cannot provide for cubs
  • Seals reducing due to less fish and marine plants
  • Thinner ice means inuits are in danger when fishing

The Sahel

  • Includes Chad and Sudan
  • Rainfall decreasing, drought, forced to drink dirty water, poor crops, desertification.
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Impacts of Climate Change on UK Society

  • Temperature rise of 0.2 celsius per decade + exaggerated weather
  • Heat may mean insects from warmer climates bringing diseases such as Malaria
  • Rainfall will mean higher rainfall and increased flooding risk
  • Although will increase tourism in areas
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Flood Management

Mississppi - Hard engineering

  • Levees 
  • Straightneing or channeling - cutting out meanders
  • 200 flood control dams
  • Soft egineering e.g afforestation of flood plains
  • Mitigation e.g in Shrewsbury river Severn, temporary flood defences put up when flood warnings are high
  • Oxfam funding in Bangladesh to put wells on higher ground so water isn't contaminated
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Haiti Earthquake 2010

  • Struck near capital Port-au-Prince
  • 1.5million homeless
  • Government builidngs collapsed, left with no political leadership
  • 316,000 died
  • Chloera in refugee camps
  • Affected infrastructure and development
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Mount St. Helens 1980

  • Landslides and pyroclastic flows
  • Acres of timber destroyed
  • 57 deaths
  • Increased tourism in the area
  • Ash spread over 8 states affecting crops and air transport
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Beneficial Impacts of Tectonic Activity

  • Sustainable geothermal energy in Iceland - geisers also bring tourism
  • Mt. Versuvius in Italy is a tourist attraction
  • Soils produced by weathering of volcanic ash are rich in nutrients
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Boscastle Floods 2004

  • Hydrograph with short time lag and high peak discharge
  • Rivers Valency and Jordon join further upstream, doubling the discharge
  • Impermeable rocks meant more surface run-off
  • Steep valleys encouraged rapid run-off
  • Village built on narrow valley floor
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  • Low-lying country with 3 major rivers - Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra, large delta
  • Monsoon climates bring yearly floods helping harvests
  • Snow melt from Himalayas
  • Deforestation reduces interception
  • Climate change increases snowmelt
  • Urbanisation on flood plain reduces infiltration
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