Substance use and abuse

Substance use and abuse

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Moolcan et al (2000)

Aim: to review reserach on tabacco smoking in adolescents

Method- reviewed data that had already been collected- risk factors, the characteristics of nicotine abuse and treatment intervervention.

Results:43 % of us grade 9 smoke. 75% will smoke as adults, way of fitting in with peers, 75% have a parent who smokes, smoking more depression, more likely to ADHD, femal smokers are more confident, outgoing and rebellious whereas men are socially insecure, girsl preoccupied with dite and withgt

Conclusions: Adolesents smoking can be influenced by a range of environmental and biological facots. Treatments have not been very effective.

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Robinson et al (1997) predictor of risk for disser

Aim: To identify the risks associated with diferent stages of cigerette use in adolscents

Sample: 6967 7th graders from 39 schools in the middle south of the usa

Method:each participant was given a wide range questionaire

Results: 38% had tried smoking and 4.0% were smokers- easily avaliable and afforable, regular smokers were heabily influenced by costs, rated social value of cigereetes as low but were more likely to smoke if friends smoked. girls would be more likely to smoke if parents did but not boys- used as dieting tool

Conclusions; A range of social influences contribute to othe experimental and regular smoking programs- implications of prevention programms

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Lando (1977)

aim- To compare a broud specturm treatment program for smokers to a control group reciveing aversive conditing only

Sample: 16 men and 18 women recuited by a newspaper in Iowa usa- age range 31.2 and smoked 12.4 years mean number of cigerettes smoked a day were 28.7

Method: kept a dairy (baseline data), randonmly assigned to wo groups- experimental received six 45 mins sessions a week- learned activity rather then addiction- designed to disrupt their normal style of smoking. During week urged to smoke as much as possiabl and set up laboratory smoking sessions- somoke continusly for 25 mins. erxpected to abstain smoking a week after program and had 7 follow up sessions over next two months. During two these one hour sessions discussed difficulties they faced with smoking and pay fine for evey cigerette they smoked. The control group-one week aversive conditions

Results: 76 ofexperimental participants were still not smoking after 6 months 35% control group

Conclusions:Combinging aversion therapy, rewards and punishments, coaicl supports and attitudes change is potentially a very effective way of smoking.

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