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Substance Abuse
Use & Abuse

Substance Use: The person experiences no harmful effects
Substance Misuse: The person experiences social, psychological, physical or legal problems
Substance Abuse: The person and indirectly others experience harmful affects

Addiction & physical dependence> Addiction: where the substance is used repeatedly, resulting in the
person being…

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Tobacco and nicotine: Tobacco contains an addictive drug known as nicotine. Nicotine is a mild stimulant and a
person needs to be smoke regularly as the chemicals are quickly absorbed into the bloodstream. Smoking cigarettes
or other tobacco-based products can be bad for your health. A link has been found…

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Evaluating kaij's study and the biological explanation for substance abuse:
Identical twins are often treated the same and they share the same this may the reason behind high
concordance rates rather than genetics
Adoption studies still suggest that genetics does play a role in explaining substance abuse even though the…

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operate in each society. Certain societies see heavy drinking and getting drunk as socially acceptable while others
do not.

Aim: Investigating the role of peer influence on substance abuse
Method: In a longitudinal study from when mothers were pregnant and 18 years later data collected on peer
substance abuse…

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Self-management programmes can also be assisted through community programmes whereby members of a
community run a programme based on the negative effects of a particular substance
Aim: Investigating the effectiveness of community programmes with teenagers on binge drinking
Method: A group of teenagers received a programme about the negative…

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Janis and Fleschback
Aim: Investigating the effect of different levels of fear-arousing appeals on health behaviour
Method: Three lectures on tooth decay were designed varying in the level of fear caused in the audience. Levels
were high, medium and low
Results: Low fear-arousing appeals actually led to greater changes in…

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Health promotion aims to make people acknowledge the benefits of a healthier lifestyle as substance abusers usually
have an unhealthy lifestyle. Health promotion and education should either reduce or even prevent substance abuse
altogether. This can be done through four main methods:
Information giving: About healthy diet, exercise and medical…

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