- found in many parts of a plant
- energy/food store
- made up of chains of alpha-glucose
- insoluble - no water into cell by osmosis, doesn't easily diffuse out of cells
- compact so lots can be stored in small space
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- similar to strach but shorted chains and more highly branched
- carbohydate storage product of animals
- readily hydrolysed to alpha-glucose
- insoluble - no osmosis, doesn't easily diffuse out
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- made up of beta-glucose
- straight, unbranched chains
- hydrgogen bonds between chains
- lots of hydrogen bonds strengthen it
- component of plant cell walls
- prevents the cell bursting from osmosis
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Leaf Palisade Cell
This carries out photosynthesis and it's main features suit this function.
- long, thin cells to absorb sunlight
- numerous chloroplasts to collect maxiumum amount of light
- large vacuole that pushes the cytoplasm and chloroplasts to the edge of the cell.
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- Chloroplast envelope - surrounds organelle and selective on what enters and leaves.
- Grana - stacks of thylakoids. These contain chlorophyll.
- Stroma - fluid-filled matrix.
Chloroplasts are adapted to their funtion of harvesting sunlight by:
- granal membranes provide large surface area for attached of chlorophyll, electron carriers and enzymes.
- fluid of the stroma possesses all the enzymes needed for photosynthesis.
- contain DNA and ribosomes so they can quickly manufacture proteins needed for photosynthesis.
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- consist of polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose).
- thin layer (middle lamella) which marks the boundary between adjacent cell walls and cements adjacent cells together.
- provide mechanical strength to prevent it from bursting via osmosis.
- to allow water to pass along it.
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