• Created by: emilygcx
  • Created on: 03-06-15 11:45

Sport and Physical Recreation

Physical Activity is anything that gets the body moving eg cleaning

Physical Recreation is any activity done in a persons own time 

Exercise is any vigorous activity

Lifelong Physical Activity eg Yoga // Lifelong Sport eg Badminton

Sport has HIGHER amounts of skill/fitness/media/ etc with set time/space

Rec has LOWER amounts of skill/media/organisation etc with no set time/space

Physical Prowess: high level of skill   //   Physical Endevour: high level of effort

Deviance: Cheating (deliberatly breaking rules) eg taking drugs

Gamesmanship: Bending rules to gain an advantage eg sledging

Sportsmanship: following written/unwritten rules eg helping a player up

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Physical Education

PE is learning through and about Physical Activity.


  • Different Levels (GCSE/A Level etc) with different GB's (OCR/AQA etc)
  • Specialist staff - teachers
  • National Curriculum (inc after school)
  • Focus of study of human movement


  • Wide Range of Experiences
  • Confidence and Enjoyment
  • Overcome Challenges
  • Learning of new skills eg teamwork
  • Preperation
  • Social/Mental Benefits as well as Physical
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Outdoor Recreation

OR- Rec with Challenge and Risk


  • Done in own time
  • High risk eg risk of injury
  • Trained Staff
  • Examples include Rock Climbing


  • Appreciation of the Natural Environment
  • Psychological Benefits
  • Sense of Adventure
  • Stress Relief
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Outdoor Education

OE- Learning in and about the outdoors


  • Trained staff
  • Element of Risk
  • Optional part of PE
  • School/College programme eg a Skiing trip


  • Variation and Enjoyment
  • Learn skills
  • Development (personal and social)
  • Enhance quality of life


  • High cost (transport, equipment, staff)
  • Not compulsary
  • Health and Safety
  • Lack of Qualifications
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  • Lombardian Win Ethic
  • Commercialism and Franchises (Capitalist Society)
  • Draft System and High status in Schools / College
  • Media Influence on Rules (TV Time Out)
  • American Dream

American Football:

  • Ivy League Universitis
  • 1800's no generally accepted rules. 1900's violent
  • Gridiron
  • Reflects pioneers spirit


  • Expected by crowd (rules allow it)
  • Equipment used as weapons
  • De-humanising effect // psyched up
  • Tradition
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  • Sporting Obsession + Tradition of Success
  • Health Concious
  • Fashionable Pastime
  • Natural Resources
  • Gov Funding // Schools

Aussie Rules:

  • Tom Wills (1850's)
  • Rugby + Gaelic Football
  • Winter Game for Cricketers

Factors Shaping Development:

  • Schools
  • Aus wanted their own game
  • Change of code / role models
  • Both sexes - played by all
  • Media Interest
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Player Violence


  • Crowd Encouragement
  • Frustration at losing/playing badly/bad decision by officials
  • Importance of Result (eg World Cup Final)
  • Sledging
  • Nature of the Game
  • Drugs
  • Equipment as weapons // Dehumanisation
  • Lack of Punishment
  • Intimidation


  • Allowing Drugs
  • Harsher Bans (longer bans, higher fines)
  • Education
  • Technology
  • Rule Changes
  • Security
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Spectator Violence


  • Deindividuation
  • Alcohol
  • Frustration at Losing
  • Rivarly / Religion eg Liverpool vs Everton
  • Hooliganism
  • Mimicking
  • Media Hype


  • No Alcohol in Grounds
  • Harsher Bans
  • Seperation of Fans
  • Better Security in Stadiums
  • Checks into Ground
  • Improve Facilities and Security Cameras
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Media eg TV, Radio, Newspaper


results   //  new sports // show games // promotion


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Positives of Media


  • Feel Good Factor
  • Wealth and Fame // Careers in the Media
  • Positive Role Models
  • Fairness
  • Minority Sports (Advertised)
  • Breaking Stereotypes
  • Funding
  • Control


  • Education
  • Increase Participation
  • Role Models
  • Improving Diet
  • Improve Health
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Negatives of Media


  • Pressure
  • Emphasis on Winning
  • Negative Role Models
  • Irresponsible Press
  • Intrusion on Life
  • Disruptions
  • Little Emphasis on Minority Sports


  • Armchair Spectators
  • Increase in Costs (NHS // CHD's)
  • Influence on Advertising
  • Negative Behavious
  • Negative Social Media
  • Less Participation
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Reasons for Use:

  • Gain an Advantage
  • Reduce Pain // Allow us to Play when Injured // Train Harder
  • Lose Weight  // Put on Muscle (Steroids) // Calm Nerves (Beta)
  • Pressure to Win
  • "Everyone Else is Doing It"
  • EPO - Inc Oxygen Transportation


  • Side Effects (Stroke, Death etc)
  • Addictive
  • Make Injury Worse
  • Cheating which Undermines Spirit of Sport


  • Harsher Bans // Fans
  • More Frequent Blood and Drug Tests
  • Legalise
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Technological Products

 Positive Consequences

  • Fairer Outcome - Tech to Get Correct Result eg Hawk Eye / Goal-Line Tech
  • Comfort - Material of Clothing eg Skins
  • Improved Performance - Better Equipment and Kit eg Swimming Suits
  • Safety - Increase in Safety eg Gum Sheild
  • Analysis - Video Playbacks To Improve or Analyse Performance eg MOTD
  • Recovery - Decrease Recovery Time eg Ice Bath / Physiotherapy

Negative Consequences

  • Cheating - Allowing Players To Cheat eg Drugs
  • Disruption - Pause Games To Make Decisions eg 4th Official / Hawk Eye
  • Injury - New Tech Leading to Injury eg Blades
  • Unfair Advantage - Tech Leads to Advantages eg Better Kit / Pitch
  • Win At All Costs - Emphasis on Winning eg Drugs / Leading to ALL Tech Development
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Ethnic Sports

// Ethnic Sports in the UK //


Cheese Rolling // Haxey Hood // Mob Football // Highland Games // Tar Barrel Rolling

Reasons for Survival:

  • Traditional - Keep Tradition Alive / Celebration of the Past
  • Local - Local Pride
  • Isolated - Not Affected by Main Sports in Cities
  • Annual - Something to Look Forward Too
  • Rowdy - Pub-Centered
  • Social - Brings Community Together
  • Tourist - Generates Profit and Media Attraction
  • Festival / Ritual - Carnival Atmosphere
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Public Schools

Role in Promoting Sport:

  • Funding from Pupils
  • Rules Developed at Oxbridge and Taught at Schools by Boys
  • Games Compulsory
  • Boys Became Obsessed and Involved in Organisation
  • Character Building
  • Inter-House Games
  • Specialist Coaches
  • Boys Enter Industry and Improve Sports for Workers eg West Ham
  • Church Teams
  • Sports Developed in Village

Schools includy Eton and Rugby School

Schools were Boarding and a Higher Class.

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Organisations // Funding

UK SPORT: Distributes Lotter Finding to Elite, Runs the EIS, Run World Class Pathway Programmes, Work with NGB's, Attract World Class Events, Carry Out Anti-Doping

SPORT ENGLAND: Encourages Mass Participation, Gets People active and into sports, develop school and club links, develop facilities, increases opportunities

EIS: Top Quality facilites eg Lee Valley for athletics, sport-science support, physiotherapy, career and nutritional advice

BOA: Selects and managed team GB, keeping Olympic athletes healthy (pre-training camps), in charge of bidding for Olympics (London 2012), rehab facilties.


PUBLIC: Funding from Government and Local Authorities including National Lottery

PRIVATE: Funding from buisness, companies and investors that aim to make more money (often comes as sponsorship)

VOLUNTARY: Funding from Donations, Charities or Private Clubs

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Amateur to Professional

Amateur - Upper Classes who played sport UNPAID as they could afford too. Mainly played for Enjoyment.

Professional - Lower / Working Classes who had to be PAID to play as they couldn't afford to miss work otherwise.


NGB's were forced to modernise the system in order to keep funding.

Now sport is result driven.

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Benefits of Sport


  • Health and Wellbeing
  • Reduce risk of CHD'S
  • Lower BP
  • Lose Weight


  • Make friends
  • Feeling of Belonging
  • Teamwork
  • Learn new Skills


  • Stress Relief
  • Confidence
  • Feeling of Well-Being
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Participation Pyramid

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Sedentary Lifestyle

S/L = Not being as Active.


  • Increase in Technology
  • Armchair Spectators (Media)
  • More Cars in Families (+ better public transport)
  • More Desk, Office Jobs and Less Manual Labour
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The Birth of the Modern Olympics

"Citius, Altius, Fortius" // "Swifter, Higher, Stronger"

Baron Pierre De Coubertin establised the modern Olympics in 1896. His vision was to educate young people and bring them together. Started just for amateurs (gentlement at birth)

This vision came from the Original Olympics, the Much Wenlock Games and Public Schools.

Aims: Prowess, Strengthen sports, education, glorification.

Philosophy: Promotes balane (mind/body/will), effort, role-model, tolderance, unity and friendship

Summer and Winter: Held every 4 years (same until 1922, now two years apart)

IOC: No public money. Supervise organisation of Olympics, ensure Commercialism is well managed, decisions about future Olympics, works in areas eg women in sport / sport for all.

Montreal in 1976 almost went bankrupt after their Olympics (still paying off debt). The LA (1984) Olympics was first to have commericalism to stop this. (Peter Uberoth)

Led to Official Sponser / Supplier / Licenser

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London 2012


  • More money invested into sport (and britains economy)
  • new facilites
  • higher sporting profile
  • increased participation
  • media coverage
  • country pride


  • Costs
  • Lack of Long Term Jobs
  • Elitism > Participation
  • Focus on London
  • Nationalism
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Olympics as a Vehicle

China: Communist State- sport is controlled, funded and encouraged. Spectacular Olympics to advertise Communisms strengths (economic rise)

Centralised system with selection and elitism

Shop Window Effect: Sporting Success = Political Success

Sport as a Political Tool- 'Show off' countries political ideas (eg Hitler / Jesse Owens)

Nation Building: Improve countrys image.

National Pride and Appeasement

Funding and Government Control

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Barriers to Participation

DISABLED: barriers: less clubs / cost of equipment / transport / unfair competition / solutions: increase awareness / more clubs / funding / seperate competitons / facilites / techology

WOMEN: barriers: stereotypes / confidence / clubs / children / media / solutions: increase media coverage / education / women-only sessions / more clubs / role models

ELDERLY: barriers: health / money / transport / clubs / confidence / solutions: less intense sports eg walking football / free sports / transport buses for free / create clubs / education

MINORITY GROUPS: barriers: racism / family and relgious pressure / discrimiation / small numbers of minority / solutions: awareness / tackling racism (kick it out) / improve skill and attitude / increase number of coaches and people in organisations of minorities

YOUNG PEOPLE: barriers: time / money / peer pressure / lack of role models / attitudes / transport / family pressure / positive experiences / local clubs / solutions: charities / transport / more clubs / education of pressure / more role models / increase positive experiences

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