XENOPHON, Spartan Society 2-6
- No shoes- strong feet
- Wore 1 garment all year round
- Just enough food to survive 'give them a taste' of starvation. To prepare for battle.
- Engage in stealing/foraging to fight starvation. Punished if caught, for incompetency.
- Collect cheeses from Orthia whilst being whipped: short term pain = long term prestige.
- Any citizen could discipline/instruct the boys.
- Never without someone in charge of them: "Smartest Eirens took command of each squadron."
- Hearers/Inspirers. Platonic relationships between men and boys, based on respect.
- Ages mixed together- youths benefit from elders' wisdom.
- When they become youths: likely to be self-willed and cocky. Given the most amount of work at this time. To avoid shirking.
- To implement respect in them: keep both hands in their cloaks in the streets, in silence.
- Contests and competitions encouraged: compete in excellence- 'attain the height of manly gallantry. Encouraged to be the best.
- Meritocracy: i.e. the Krypteia.
- Stopped excessive drinking.
- "If a boy is beaten by another, it is a disgrace if his father does not give him another beating."
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PLUTARCH, Life of Lycurgus 16-18
- At age of 7- distributed into Troops. The captaincy of the Troop went to the boy with the soundest judgement and best fighting spriit. He gave the others punishments/gave instructions.
- Watched by their elders- spurring them on to fight and contend with each other.
- Learned to read/write no more than was necessary.
- Physical training intensified with age, barefoot, exercising naked, cropping their hair.
- From 12- only 1 cloak a year and never wore a tunic.
- Did not bathe/oil.
- Slept in Troops on self-made mattresses.
- From 12- "courted by lovers from among the respectable young men"
- Older men visited the gymnasia as the boys trained etc. Create respect for any of their elders.
- At any occasion: someone would be there to reprimand a mistake.
- Meritocracy: Eirens (20 years) lead Troops
- Encouraged to steal, punished if caught.
- Story of boy with wolf- didn't want to be caught stealing it, prepared for it to eat him.
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- System to produce skilled warriors, respected for skill and knowledge throughout Greece.
- 7.206- "Sent Leonidas with his men first, so that their allies would see them and join in the war."
- 7.211- "Lacedaemonians fought remarkably well, proving they were experts in battle."
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- Education meant to breed next generation for the slaughter. The old have already sacrificed for their country- the young are expected to take over with enthusiasm.
- "It is disgraceful when an older man falls in the front line while the young fall back."
- "For the young man, still in glorious prime, [death] is beautiful."
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