SPAIN

  • Created by: imogenkay
  • Created on: 19-05-17 09:25

BACKGROUND

  • Enormous political, economic, institutional change since Franco's death in 1975
  • First 30ys was great success story
  • "In under 30ys... has emerged from dictatorship and international isolation... built a successful economy and established an effective democracy"
  • Since then, has been a political, economic, insitutional and territorial crisis
  • Challenges facing the party system (decline of traditional two-party dominance and rise of new players)
  • Challenges facing decentralisation model (nationalist demands from Basque/ Catalan
  • Challenges of decentralisation and political renewal
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SUCCESS STORY

First 30ys after Franco

  • Transition based on political culture of consensus and compromise
  • Role of King Juan Carlos and PM Adolfo Suarez
  • Consitution 1978
  • Compromise on decentralisation
  • 17 regions / 'autonomous communities' (3 historic: Basque, Catalonia, Galacia)
  • European and international role
  • Joined NATO 1982
  • Joined EEC/ EU 1986
  • EU structural/ cohesion funds benefitted Spain
  • Pro-european identity
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SUCCESS STORY

  • Economic turnaround (mid 1990s)
  • High average GDP growth
  • Entry to Euro in 1999 (low interest rates fuelled construction boom)
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WHY A NEW CRISIS?

Socialist Governments (2004-2011 - PM Zapatero):

  • Undoing promises of the past
  • Clash between Left and Right over Law on Historical Memory
  • Civil War mass graves exhumed
  • Francoist street names/ monuments removed

Growing demands from Basques and Catalans:

  • Nationalist parties seek soverignty for their regions/ nations (Spain = sole holder under constitution)
  • 2005 = failed 'Ibarretxe Plan' in Basque Country
  • Since 2010 - growing pro-independence movement in Catalonia
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WHY A NEW CRISIS?

Spain hit hard by financial crisis (2007/8):

  • Construction bubble burst
  • 26% unemployment
  • Harsh austerity measures to meet Eu defecit targets
  • Regional savings banks collapsed
  • Corruption amongst politicians came to light
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WHY A NEW CRISIS?

Spain hit hard by financial crisis (2007/8):

  • Construction bubble burst
  • 26% unemployment
  • Harsh austerity measures to meet Eu defecit targets
  • Regional savings banks collapsed (savings banks and constructions firms closely linked)
  • Corruption amongst politicians came to light
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WHY A NEW CRISIS?

Spain hit hard by financial crisis (2007/8):

  • Construction bubble burst
  • 26% unemployment
  • Harsh austerity measures to meet Eu defecit targets
  • Regional savings banks collapsed (savings banks and constructions firms closely linked)
  • Corruption amongst politicians came to light

Citizen protest movements (against political class/ handling of financial crisis):

  • May 2011: Left wing movement 'indignados' (the outraged)
  • Emergence of new parties (left wing 'Podemos'/ 'We can' 2014)
  • Decline of traditional two-party dominance (Socialist Party and Conservative Popular Party)
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TERRITORIAL CRISIS

History (origins of modern Spain):

  • Marriage of Isabella (Castile) and Ferdinand (Aragon) - beginning a cooperative reign that would unite all the dominions of Spain 
  • Lots of territories annexed by Castile but no strong nation-building
  • 1833: Spain divided into 49 provinces/ regions under Castile control
  • Regional identities remained strong
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BASQUE AND CATALAN NATIONALISMS

Late 19th C / early 20th C political developments

  • Industrialisation and social change
  • Regions richest but Spain in decline
  • Sabino Arana - father of Basque nationalism
  • Catalan 'Renaissance'
  • Regionalist political parties emerge
  • Attempts at regional autonomy (early 20th C)
  • Regional statutes 1930s
  • Ended when Franco won Civil War/ became dictator 1939-75
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1978 SPANISH CONSITUTION

Creation of the 'state of autonomies':

  • 50 provinces grouped in 17 'autonomous communities'/ regions
  • Basque, Catalonia, Galcia recognised as 'historical nationalities' NOT nations
  • Facilitated asymmetrican (uneven) devolution across the state
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REACTION TO 1978 SPANISH CONSITUTION

Catalonia

  • Seven 'founding fathers' of Constitution included representative of main Catalan nationalist party (CDC)
  • CDC wanted Catalonia to play leading role in Spain
  • Catalan regional autonomy statue approved in referrundum in region in 1979
  • Fiscal competences: Catalonia formed part of common regional financing system (1980 - LOFCA - 15/17 regions)

Basque

  • 'Founding fathers' did not include representative of main Basque nationalist party (PNV)
  • PNV abstained when Consitution was voted on in Parliament (many Basques boycotted referendum)
  • PNV did support Basque auntonomy statute 1979
  • Consitution and regional statute allowed Basque's extensive fiscal autonomy under Basque Economic Agreement with Spain
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DEVELOPING 'STATE OF AUTONOMIES

1982 Organic Law on the Harmonisation of the Autonomy Process (LOAPA):

  • Clear step towards 'cafe para todos' / 'coffee for all'
  • Desgined to slow process of transferring powers and competences to regions
  • Rejected by Basque and Catalan nationalists (+ other regional governments

1980s/ 90s

  • Marked period of consolidation of 'state autonomies' as competences gradually transferred to regions
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SPANISH GOVERNMENTS

Parliament: 350 seats (176 needed for absolute majority)

Times of minority government = 'mutual backscratching' (Field 2014) between Spanish parties and nationalist parties in regions

  • 1982-93 - Absolute majority PSOE (Spanish Socialist Workers Party) governments under Gonzalez
  • 1993-96 - Minority PSOE government
  • 1996-2000 - Minority PP (Peoples Party) government under Aznar
  • 2000-04 - Absolute majority PP government
  • 2004-11 - Minority PSOE government under Zapatero
  • 2011-15 - Absolute majority PP government under Rajov
  • 2016 - Minority PP government
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CATALAN AND BASQUE GOVERNMENTS

1980s and 1990s

Catalan:

  • CDC (lead party of CiU federation)
  • Pujol - Catalan regional president 1980-2003
  • Worked with Spanish governments to build Catalan autonomy and create leading role for Catalonia in Spain
  • From 1995: CiU lost its absolute majority in Catalan parliament and relied on PP for support

Basque:

  • PNV (Basque Nationalist Party)
  • Ardanza - Basque regional president 1985-1998
  • Worked with Spanish governments to build Basque autonomy but not interested in creating role for Basque Country in Spain
  • PNV with consistence minority in Basque parliament formed stable coalition governments with Basque branch of Spanish Socialist Party (PSOE) in 80s/90s
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NATIONALIST DEMANDS

Territorial accomodation:

  • Moderate form of Basque and Catalan nationalist politics in 80s/90s practiced by PNV and CiU
  • Seeking regional autonomy with scope of Basque and Catalan regional autonomy statutes and Spanish Consitution

VS

Quest for sovereignty:

  • Traditionally moderate nationalist parties have moved away from territorial accomodation to seek self-determination and sovierignty for their regions at different times since late 90s
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IBARRETXE PLAN 2004

Juan Jose Ibarretxe (President of Basque Country / PNV leader)

Main features:

  • Followed Lizarra Declaration 1998
  • Beyond 1978 Spanish Consitution
  • Basque Country would be 'area of free association' with Spain rather than 'autonomous region'
  • Basques to have own representation within EU
  • Right to self-determination (potentially to secede from the state)

Outcome:

  • Basuque parliament approved plan but only just
  • Plan rejected by PP and PSOE in Spanish parliament 2005
  • Critics withing Basque Country say plan was too divisive
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PRO-INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT CATALONIA

Strong movement since 2010 but signs emerging from 2007

Catalysts:

  • Spanish governments and Constitutional Courts watering down of new Catalan autonomy statute
  • Financial crisis
  • Recentralization under conservative Spanish PP governments (including absolute majority government of Rajoy in 2011-15
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PRO-INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT CATALONIA

Debate over to what extent the movement can be seen as elite-led (town-down) or citizen-led (bottom-up) processes

Top-down argument: (Political power)

  • Catalan parties through process of competitive out-bidding had development more nationalist projects over the years which shaped citizens views

Bottom-up argument: (Civil counterpower)

  • Huge citizen mobalisation (e.g. La Diada - Catalan national day 11/09) which appears to have forced the hand of politicans

Balanced argument presented by Kathryn Crameri 2015

  • Multidimensional relationship / co-construction
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NEW LEFT IN CATALONIA

  • Pro-independence sentiment in Catalonia becuase of dissatisfaction with Spanish-Catalan relations and response to austerity
  • New type of left-wing politics seen in Spain (origins in anti-austerity movements/ citizen platforms) is also doing well in Catalonia

"For many in Catalonia, the 'double crisis', national and economic, is one and the same"

- Kate Shea Baird 2015

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POLITICAL CRISIS

General elections 2015 and 2016:

  • Decline of two-party dominance
  • Rise of the fragmented parliament

The left: decline of PSOE // rise of Podemos:

  • PSOE (Socialists Workers Party) = traditional Spanish socialist party
  • Lost power in 2011 to PP
  • Disillusioned PSOE voters turned to new 'Podemos' ('We Can') - fragmenting the left
  • Podemos is more left-wing that PSOE created in 2014 after 15-M Movement (anti-austerity)
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POLITICAL CRISIS

The right: PP just holds onto power / Ciudadanos emerges as competitor:

  • PP (Popular Party) = traditional Spanish conservative party
  • Embroiled in corruption and scandals in recent years
  • After winning absolute majority in 2011, won again 2015 but with too small a minority to form government (formed weak government after election re-run 2016)
  • Some disillusioned voters turned to new centre-right party Ciudadanos (Citizens) but as newcomer its not been as successful as Podemos
  • No far-right party has emerged in Spain

Challenges going forward....

  • Weak government ... will it last?
  • Lack of tradition of coalitions in Spain
  • Different views among Spanish parties on territorial Q
  • 2/3 majority needed for any reforms in Consitution (difficult in fragmented parliament)
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