Democratization

How many semi-presidential states were there in 1946?
3
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What percentage of the world's states were semi-presidential in 2002?
22
2 of 32
Who says that semi-pres is 'a regime type whose time has come'?
Shugart
3 of 32
Who says the 'shared power but unequal legitimacy and accountability structure theoretically predictable and empirically verifiable tensions into the semi-pres type'?
Skach
4 of 32
Who suggests that semi-pres supports democratic survival by virtue of its flexibility?
Pasquino and Sartori
5 of 32
Who says that there is insufficient evidence to make the claim the cohabitation is perilous under semi-pres' and that Niger is the only country where cohab has ever been directly responsible for the collapse of democracy?
Elgie
6 of 32
Who says that if Linz' focus had been post-colonial Africa and Asia, parliamentary systems would be the the institutional demon?
Horowitz
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Who says that the winner-takes-all feature of the Westminster model is responsible for authoritarianism in post-colonial Africa and Asia?
Lewis
8 of 32
Why is Linz' example of Allende's exacerbation of social conflict in Chile undermined?
presidents before Allende 'actually bolstered centrist, moderating tendencies'
9 of 32
Who says 'Winner-take-all is a function of electoral systems, not of institutions in the abstract'?
Horowitz
10 of 32
Which two countries does Horowitz say would have benefited from adopting their presidential systems earlier in moderating conflicts?
Sri Lanka and Nigeria
11 of 32
Who says 'abuse of power is hardly a presidential monopoly'?
Horowitz
12 of 32
How many wars have been fought between democracies and non-democracies between 1816 and 1991?
155
13 of 32
How many wars have been fought between non-democracies and non-democracies between 1816 and 1991?
198
14 of 32
What characterises dominant-power politics?
blurring of the line between state and ruling party/person
15 of 32
Who distinguishes between rapid deaths and slow deaths: silent regressions from democratic to semi-democratic rule?
O'Donnell
16 of 32
Who said that for 3rd wave democracies, 'the problem is not overthrow but erosion: the intermittent or gradual weakening of democracy by those elected to it'?
Huntington
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Who distinguishes between democratic survival due to consolidation and democratic survival due to favourable circumstances? (disease analogy)
Svolik
18 of 32
What effect do Przeworski et al find low economic development, a presidential exec and military authoritarian past have on consolidation?
all make consolidation less likely but have no effect on reversals to authoritarianism
19 of 32
Who says 'what kills democracy is not presidentialism but rather their military legacy' referring to Latin America?
Cheibub
20 of 32
After what year was democracy the most common system globally?
1984
21 of 32
Who finds that in a study of 83 young democracies 'on average premier-presidential regimes have better freedom house scores and a better chance of democratic survival'?
Moestrup
22 of 32
Who thinks that democracy became popular for macrosociological reasons of modernization and rising standards of education?
Lipset
23 of 32
Which pair say that you need to have a recession for a revolution (the only exception being perhaps Syria)?
Acemoglu and Robinson
24 of 32
What is the curse of natural resources?
people can be continually bought off and economic development stagnates since there is no need to improve efficiency
25 of 32
Who says that natural resources and womens' role in Muslim societies are the main obstacles to democratization there?
Fish
26 of 32
What does the duration of democratic survival depend on?
whether they came from revolution (movements become parties)
27 of 32
What, according to Huntington is a wave of democratization?
a group of transitions from nondemocratic to democratic regimes that occur within a period of time that significantly outnumber transitions in the opposite direction during that period of time
28 of 32
Who says that there must be sufficient social organisation and social capital for a society to have a revolution and times of crisis can make the collective action problem easier to solve?
Putnam
29 of 32
Muller and Seligson find that income equality is the single most important variable in a country's level of democracy between 1981 and 1990. What are the accompanying stats?
for every 10% increase in the income share of the upper quintile of the population, there was a 16% reduction in the level of democracy
30 of 32
Who says 'the more well-to-do a nation, the greater the chances that it will sustain democracy'?
Lipset
31 of 32
By what percent faster to economies of democracies grow than non-democracies?
5%
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What percentage of the world's states were semi-presidential in 2002?

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22

Card 3

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Who says that semi-pres is 'a regime type whose time has come'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who says the 'shared power but unequal legitimacy and accountability structure theoretically predictable and empirically verifiable tensions into the semi-pres type'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who suggests that semi-pres supports democratic survival by virtue of its flexibility?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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