Sociology C1


What is culture?

Culture refers to a shared way of life for groups. Culture can consist of religious practises, language, communication and hierarchy. 

1 of 12

Name and explain different cultures.

  • Subculture - a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture. 
  • High culture - encompasses the cultural objects of aesthetic value, it is generally only accessable by the elitists. This includes paintings from world renowned artists, private jets and opera houses as interests. 
  • Popular culture - culture based on the tastes of ordinary people rather than an educated elite, this would include films, music, sports, books and radio.
  • Global culture- a culture which is common across the world and internationally, for example, electronics, communication and news.
  • Consumer culture -  can be broadly defined as a culture where social status, values, and activities are centered on the consumption of goods and services. Basically a culture centred around materialism. 
2 of 12

What is cultural diversity?

Culture diversity is the existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society. These include race, ethnicity, age, ability, language, nationality, socioeconomic status, gender, religion, or sexual orientation.

3 of 12

What is cultural hybridity?

Cultural hybridity is  introduced through the concept of Creolisation. Understanding that new forms of culture emerge through a mixture of different types of culture is a good precursor to understanding postmodernism and hybrid identity.

4 of 12

What is primary socialisation?

Primary socialisation is the very first stage of socialisation where a baby will begin to learn the norms, values and culture of their society. The main institutions of primary socialisation is the family, as this process begins during infancy. One method of socialisation is cannalisation, whereby the child will be channeled to the interests in activities or toys in conjunction with gender as deemed appropriate.

5 of 12

What is secondary socialisation?

Secondary socialisation is the next stage of socialisation, normally taking place when the child is around 5-7, still in KS1 in school. However, the main institutions are school, peers and media (as children are able to read some books, magazine and watch television).

6 of 12

Agencies of socialisation

Agencies (or institutions) of socialisation are factors which ar emost influential on developing ones identity. These include; 

  • Family 
  • Peer groups
  • Media
  • Religion
  • Education
  • Workplace
7 of 12

What is the nature/nurture debate?

Thenature/ nurture debate is an argument (basically between sociologists and psychologists) as to whether behaviour is learned or in ones DNA. 

One argument that behaviour is learned is Oxana Malaya, who as a child was abused and kicked out and lived alongside her dogs. She began to bark, walk on all fours and was unable to communicate to humans. This shows that without socialisation, one is unable to learn their society and therefore will be exluded. 

However, one argument thta behaviour is genetic is The Jim Twins. They were two men who were seperated at birth and found that 45 years later, they had the same favourite brand of beer and cigarettes, both 6 ft and 180 pounds, they both admitted to leaving notes around the house for their wives and both of their second wives were called Betty. 

8 of 12

What are formal agencies of social control?

Formal social control is the use of the law and ultimately force to control our behaviour. The agencies of social control are those legally sanctioned bodies or organisations which set down the law and make sure that it is followed. Formal agencies of social control include; 

  • Police
  • Law/legal system
  • Courts
  • Government
  • Military 
9 of 12

What are informal agencies of social control?

Informal social control -the reactions of individuals and groups that bring about conformity to norms and laws (basically social construction), these include; 

  • Family
  • Peer group/subculture 
  • Media
  • Religion
  • Education
  • Workplace
10 of 12

What is identity?

identity is how we see ourselves and how others see us. Factors which builds ones identity includes; 

  • Ethnicity 
  • Nationality 
  • Gender
  • Social class
  • Sexuality 
  • Age 
  • Disability 
11 of 12

What is a hybrid identity?

Hybrid identities are created through the mixing of more that one cultural influence in order to create a whole new individual identity. Hybrid identities are formed and reinforced by the primary and secondary agents of socialisation.

12 of 12


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Identity resources »