from milgram's study on obedience, give four features of the study which explain the level of obedience...
all p's obeyed up to 300 volts- 20th switch -(100%)
5 refused to continue after the 20th switch
4 gave one more shock after the 20th switch
26 continued to the end of the scale 450 volts(65%)
why were p's given a sample 15V shock?
so they would have a feeling of what the learner was going through
outline the key features of the sample in this study...
40 males between the age of 20-50
from a range of occupations,
and were drawn from the New Haven area
paid $4.50 just for turning up
how were the p's recruited?
obtained by a newspaper ad's for participants in a study of learning at yale's uni and were paid $4.50 just for turning up
outline 2 features of the milgram study on obedience which made it seem real to the participants...
- p's recieved feedback reactions from learner such as nervous laughing fits
- p's were falsely tested and were always given the role of a teacher (through a fixed lottery which they didn't know about)
- were shown the learner(reality and actor) strapped in a chair with electrodes attached to him
outline one way milgram's study had low EV and outiline one way it had high EV...
it was a lab experiment therefore wasn't a real day to day situation and p's so it was loe EV
it was high EV as real subjects were used and they were decieved about the learner being real when actually he was an actor
outline how obedience was being measured in milgram's study...
obedience was being measured by seeingthe highest voltage the p's went to, to give the learner a shock
suggest 2 factors which might explain the high levels of obedience found in milgram's study of obedience...
subject told shocks were not harmful
felt obliged because of payment
from the study by milgram on obedience outline one piece of evidence which showed the p's were convinced of the reality of the situation...
the subjects showed signs of stress, shook, trembled and sweated
what percentage of p's reachedmaximum shock level?
65% reached 450 volts
what is the situational versus dipositional hypothesis?
does the individual or situation they are in cause prisons to be a brutal place?
outline 2 features of the experiment that were high in EV...
participants were arrested from home
they has simulated cells
searched and charged
outline2 features of the experiment that were low in EV...
p's were paid to take part in the study(demand characteristics)
they hadn't committed any crimes
what methods were used to collect data in this study?
observation and self-reports
after how many days was the experiment terminated?
what is meant by pathological prisoner syndrome?
when prison life takes over
what is meant by the pathology of power?
when the illusion of power had become real and the most hostile guards became leaders and role models of others
huge enjoyment of the power - led to guards abusing it and dehumanising the prisoners
describe the uniform of the guards and prisoners...
guards- khaki shirts and trousers, batons(sticks), reflecting sunglasses(couldn't see their eyes, emotions no eye contact)
prisoners-loose fitting smocks( felt immasculate, indignite), ID number printed back and front,a light chain fitted around ankles
what is meant by emasculation?
permission had to be obtained for the most simple activity e.g brushing teeth
to emasculate means to remove their strength or power so they become weak or inneffective
does zimbardo conclude prison life is due to situational or dispositional explanations?
zimbardo concludes prison life is due to situational, situation takes over their behaviour as they know they have the power to act a certain way
describe one strength and one weakness of observational research...
one strength is high EV
one weaknes is Low control
what was the IV in this study?
size of witnessing group
no model/early model helpers (70secs) late model (150 secs)
what was the DV in this study?
frequency of help
speed of help
race of help
sex of helper
movement out of area
how was data collected?
describe 2 features of the sample in this study...
new york subway travellers between 11am- 3pm
approx 45% black 55% white
what is diffusion of responsibilty?
if one person doesn't help no one else helps
give 2 reasons why diffusion of responsibilty didn't occur in this study...
everyone was face to face, couldn't get away
explain the findings in relation to race...
same race helping was frequent especially in drunk conditions as it's less cost in terms of public censure, more witness arousal empathy with victim
outline 2 ways in which bystanders can reduce arousal in emergency...
by leaving the area or
rationalising the decision not to help (by regarding the victim as underserving if help is not given)
explain the results in terms of the cost benefit analysis...
a victim who appeared ill was more likely to receive help than one who appeared drunk
100% help for cane 81% help for drunk- less help for drunk as cost of helping are high perhaps dangerous, cost of not helping are low (no blame) rewards are low (less gratitude)
men were more likely to help then women- lest cost in terms of mens physical ability.
outline one ethical and one methodological difficulty with this study...
no consent or right to withdraw was given partcipants were deceived, if they were given the method obersvation would have been low EV
also thefeild exphad low control
what is the social identity theory (SIT)?
the social group you belong to we belong to them because we can identify with them.
what does tajfel's study show about ethnocentrism?
that it's due to nature as during our schooling we compete to be the best
what does tajfel's study show about reductionism?
that group allocation is the main reason for discrimination e.g. when voting for their group they always chose maximum profit and least money for the other group
outline 2 features of the sample...
64, 14-15yr old school boys previously aquainted with each other
main weakness of this sample...
not representative other generations and gender
how were p's allocated to groups in exp 1&2?
exp1- the boys were told they would be divided into groups such as over estimators or under estimators, supposedly based on their performance on estimating the number of dots on the screenbut in fact randomly
exp2- were randomly divided into 2 groups supposedly based upon their preferences of the paintings of klee and kadinsky
what were the results of exp1?
in choices between 2 ingroups members or 2 outgroup members the strategy of maximum fairness was adopted but
in choices between a member of the ingroup and outgroup a strategy nearer maximum ingroup profit was significantly chosen
what were the results of exp2?
subjects significantly tended to adopt the strategy of maximum difference in favour of the ingroup
e.g 7/1 at the expense of maximum profit e.g 19/25
give an example of in group favouritism in everyday life...
football treams and fans
what is meant by anoutgroup?
out group is the group you oppose