Social development across the life stages

  • Created by: ClsxxDV
  • Created on: 14-02-20 13:32

Infancy (0-2 years)

  • 3 months - babies will start to smile at familiar faces
  • 6 months - Developed a strong bond with parents. May get upset when mum leaves the room. May not be confident with others
  • 12 months - Begins to bond with other people but still very dependent on parents. Usually enjoy meal times
  • 18 months - Plays alone but likes an adult or brother or sisters to be close by
  • 2 years - Can be frustrated easily and often has temper tantrums. May also play alongside other children but does not share toys and activities. Enjoy helping others. May show concern for others that are upset
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Early childhood (3-8 years)

Parallel play:

  • Between the ages of 2-3 years
  • Do not yet share and take turns
  • Engrossed in their own world
  • No interest in others around them
  • Do show an interest in what other children are doing and still like to be in the presence of adults and other children

Associative play:

  • Between the ages of 3-4 years
  • Playing the same game, but not working together or connecting with one another
  • Most children are still playing independently but do the same thing as other children
  • Begin to interact through talking, borrowing and taking turns with toys, but each child acts alone
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Early childhood (3-8 years) - Continued

Co-operative play:

  • Between 3 - 8 years
  • Develop a wider social network and form relationships with peers and other adults
  • Become more cooperative in their play, helped by their language development
  • By the age of 7 they have established a number of important friendships and others may refer to one friend as their "best friend"
  • Play is essential for communication skills, negotiating roles and beginning to understand the feelings of others

Solo (solitary) play:

  • Infants play independently
  • Provides a variety of learning opportunities
  • Allows them to explore their environment at their own pace
  • Learn by their own mistakes and increases their self-esteem
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Adolescence (9-18 years)

Positive effects of freindships

  • Can provide support
  • Avoid lonliness
  • Sharing problems
  • Build self-esteem and confidence

Negative effects of friendships:

  • Encourage bad decisions
  • Bullying/name calling
  • Creates uncertainty - questions their family, norms, values etc
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Adolescence (9-18 years) - Continued

Issues for adolescents:

  • Establishing a personal identity
  • Understanding self
  • Coping with physical changes
  • Developing thinking and reasoning skills
  • Personal relationships and intimacy
  • Peer relationships and pressures
  • Relationships with family and peers

Informal relationships - Develop within families and significant people in individual's lives

Formal relationships - Develop between peopple who are not related or friends and do not involve emotional attachments. E.g. collegues or between teachers and students

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Adolescence (9-18 years) - Continued

Social changes in Adolescence:

  • More independent from famillies
  • Greater association with peer groups
  • Conflicts with parents
  • Influenced more heavily by peers ( rather than parents)
  • Group activities with peer group have greater emphasis
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