Health and Social Care - Unit 1 AS Level - Growth and development

Revision notes for AS Level Health and Social Care Unit 1: Human Growth and Development 

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Growth and Development

GROWTH: physical changes in height, weight and size

DEVELOPMENT: increase in skills or abilities. There are 4 types of development (P.I.E.S)

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Measuring development

How is growth measured?
Can be measured on a centile chart to see how someone's height or weight compares to the norm (expected growth pattern) 

How is development measured?
Physical -
tasks (e.g. kicking a ball)

Intellectual - tests and projects  throughout education and employment

Emotional and Social - differences can be seen in people's reactions to new or tense situations, large groups and relationships. Adults are much better at controlling or hiding feelings

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Life stages

  • 0 - 2   Infancy
  • 2 - 8   Childhood
  • 9-18   Adolescence
  • 19-45 Early Adulthood
  • 45-65 Middle Adulthood
  • 65+    Later Adulthood 

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Physical growth and development

  • Visible and non-visible physical changes that occur in a person throughout their life
  • Height  usually remains the same after 17/18
  • Weight and abilities, depending on lifestyle, may alter 

Maturation (USB)
Universal -
happens to all people in all cultures (e.g. menstruation happens to all women                                                                            regardless oh where or how they live)

Sequential - happens in expected and understandable (e.g. child will learn to crawl before                       pattern                                                    they learn to walk)

Biological - doesn't rely on anything in environment to (e.g. men will get hairy armpits 
                   make it happen                                        whether they go to school or not)

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Intellectual development

  • Intellectual (cognitive) development = Way a person learns and thinks
                                                                 Improvemnents in knowledge or mental                                                                  capabilities
  • Main sources: - family
                            - school (early education is particularly important)
                            - employment  

Piaget's four stages
1) Sensory motor (0-2 years) 

2) Pre-operational/ pre-logic (2-7 years)

3) Operational concrete (7-11 years)

4) Formal operational (11+ years)

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...cont. Intellectual development

Language development

  • Children learn whatever language(s) they hear
    - may be bilingual or multilingual

Several stages of learning language:

  • Pre-linguistic stage (6- 12 months)
  • Linguistic stage (12 - 18 months
  • Holophrases (12 - 18 months)
  • Telegraphic speech (18-24 months
  • Virtuous errors (2-4 years) 
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Emotional and social development

The way we learn to understand our own and other people's emotions

The way we interact with others, how we form friendships and how we form personal ties with family 

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