Skill Aquisition

  • Created by: emilygcx
  • Created on: 05-06-15 08:54

Skill Classification

Gross  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Fine

(large muscle movement eg weightlifting)  /    (small mucle movements eg a darts throw)

Open ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Closed

(effected by environment eg pass in football) / (not effected by environment eg basketball freethrow)

Externally Paced ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Internally Paced

(paced by environment eg recieving a pass in netball) / (paced by performer eg a penalty in football)

Discrete ----------------------------------------- Serial ------------------------------------------------ Continuous

(clear start and end eg shot put) / (discrete elements put together eg triple jump) / (clear start and end eg high jump)

Simple ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Complex

(little decision making eg a 100m sprint) / (lots of decision making eg a front somersault)

High Organisation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Low Organisation

(hard to seperate sub routines eg a golf shot) / (sub routines easily seperated eg breast stroke)

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Methods of Manipulating Skills

PART // sections of the skill are practised in isolation. used for serial and complex skills.             positives; gives early success / good for cognitive learners / good for low organisation skills / good for harder skills / negatives; dont gain kinaesthesis / can be boring / takes more time to learn skill / limited awareness of the end product

WHOLE // skill taught as full so athlete can appreciate skill in its entirety.                                         positives; saves time / good for open, rapid, simple and highly organised skills / good for autonomous learners / helps gain kinaesthesis / negatives; too difficult for some / cannot be used for dangerous skills / can be demotivating / difficult to refine / technique may be to difficult to learn

PROGRESSIVE PART // sections of skill practised seperately before being linked together         positives; allows weakness to be targeted / understand relation of sub routines / negatives; can be slow / can be hard to link sections together

WHOLE PART WHOLE // skill fully performed before being broken down into sections, where weak parts are practised, then whole skill is performed again.                                                                  positives; gives a sense of full skill / improve weaknesses / easier to link subroutines / negatives; may affect trasnfer from part to whole again after seperate learning / can be confusing

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Gross Motor // abilities centered around physical movement.

  • stamina
  • speed
  • strength
  • flexability

Psychomotor // information can be processed and performer can respond accordingly

  • reaction time
  • decision making (response orientation)
  • aiming
  • rate control
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Phases of Learning

COGNITIVE // beginner phase of learning. movements are jerky and not fluent / uncoordianted / lots of mistakes / constantly conciously thinking / need demonstrations eg a new skiier

ASSOSIATIVE // intermediate phase of learning. movement are more fluent / mistakes are beginning to be eliminated / start to develop kinaesthetic awareness / for certain skills this stage is never left eg an overhead kick.

AUTONOMOUS // expert phase of learning / automatic control with minimum concious thought / skills are co-odinated and grooved / sub-concious / always focused on tactics / errors are able to be corrected / direct focus to the environment / full kinaesthesis developed eg a striker shooting in fooball

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Types of Guidance

MANUAL //  performer is physically moved into correct position eg moving a cricket bat to the right angle. Best for cognitive learner as it can support them through the learning of the new skill.  Good for dangerous skills eg a javelin throw. however, performers can become over-reliant on the skill and it limits the development of kinaesthesis of the true movement.

MECHANICAL // performer is helped with use of equipment eg a somersault belt / tackle bag. Also good for cognitive learners to support them through learning of a new skill and for dangerous skills that they are learning or may be dangerous to perform straight on people eg a rugby tackle. however it limits kinaesthesis of the true movement and can become over-reliant.

VISUAL // guidance with a visual picture or visual aids to help performer eg video play-back. can be used for cognitive learners eg a demonstration as it allows them to create a visual image. is also used with autonomous learners to help refine skills or tell tactics eg a tactic board. some forms are bad for the different types of learner eg a cognitive learner couldnt use a tactic board

VERBAL // guidance using verbal techniques (speaking). best for assosiative and autonomous learners as they only need to be told mistakes and tactics as they dont need a visual imagine. good for cognitive only when combined with visual.

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Practice Methods

MASSED // continuos practise with no breaks. // suits discrete/closed skills eg a basketball freethrow, better for fitter, autonomous and motivated performers, learning is quicker, good to groove a skill, can lead to overuse injuries, is boring and demotivating, not good for unfit or cognitive learners, not good for open skills.

DISTRIBUTED // breaks within practise // suits continuous tasts eg rowing and breaks can be used for mental rehersal, good for cognitive learners (poor concentration), good to teach tiring and dangerous skills, allow for recovery, can cause injury, can cause demotivation, longer process

FIXED // same drills done in practise // good for closed skills eg basketball freethrow, good for cognitive learners, can groove skill, bad for open skills, can be boring, skills become overlearned as drills are repetitive

VARIED // practise reflects changing environment // good for open skills eg recieving a pass, develops decision making, best for autonomous learners, motivates learners, develop kinaestheis, not good at improving particular weakness, not good for cognitive learners, not good for closed skills, artificial environment

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Welford's Model

Display (everything around us) / Sensory Information (what we take in) / Sense Organs (Eyes and Ears) / Internal Sensors (Kinaesthesis) / Perception (recognise stimuli, DCR occurs. information is interpreted) / STS - Decision Making - LTM (beore we make a decision we refer to the LTM) / Effector Control (message travels from brain to muscles via nerves) /Effectors (movement)(

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Whitings Model

Input Data (information goes in from senses) / Receptor Systems (eyes and kinaesthesis) / Perceptual Mechanisms (detect and interpret stimuli) / Translatory Mechanisms (refer to LTM to make a decision) / Effector Mechanisms (impulse sent to muscle via nerves) / Muscular System (movement performed) / Output Data (result of action) / Feedback Data (feedback recieved) (

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Multi-Store Model

Receptor System (Senses take in all information from Display)

Short-Term Sensory Store (1/4 of a second, holds all sensory information. SELECTIVE ATTENTION OCCURS. irrelevant information is discarded and revelant information is passes to the STM)

Short-Term Memory (18-30 seconds, holds 7+/- 2 bits of information which can be improved by chunking. Initiates movement, information is compared to the LTM)

Long-Term Memory (unlimited duration and capacity. holds information that is well learnt and practised)

Decision Making (we choose what action/movement to do)

Motor Output (we perform our chosen movement)

Feedback (we get feedback of the movement we made and adapt our memory to fit the result of the action)

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Reaction Time and PRP

Reaction Time is the time between the onset of the stimulus and the start of the movement eg the sound of the gun to pushing off the blocks in a 100m sprint.

Movement Time is the time it takes from starting the movement until completing it eg pushing into the blocks to crossing the finishing line

Response Time is Reaction Time + Movement Time eg the sound of the gun to crossing the line

Factors Affecting Reaction Time: age (over 20 slower) / gender (males faster) / personality (extroverts quicker) / motivation (more arousal is quicker) / body temperature (colder is slower) / number of stimuli (more is slower - HICKS LAW) / height (taller is slower as longer limbs for impulse to travel)

Psychological Refractory Period- 'bottle-neck' effect. the brain can only process one bit of information at a time so performer can't respond to second stimulis until first response is finished.

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Motor Programmes and Open/Closed Loop Control

Motor Programmes are plans of a whole skill that are stored in the LTM and made up of subroutines. These are modified after each time the skill is performed for example a netball shot (knees bent, hand position behind ball, feet position, flick wrist)

OPEN LOOP (L1) // used for fast ballistic skills / feedback can only be used after skill is performed / can only be adjusted next time skill is performed / memory trace starts action / eg a golf drive

CLOSED LOOP (L2) // a shorter feedback loop using kinaesthesis / rapid adjustments are made sub-conciously during skills execution / fluent adjustments / used by autonomous learners / perceptual trace confirms adjustments are correct / eg a salom skiier adjusting balance after slipping

CLOSED LOOP (L3) // longer feedback loop using the brain / feedback can be used during the skill / involves concious thought / used by cognitive learners / uses perceptual trace but is less effective / eg a beginner skiier adjusting balance after skiing

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Types of Feedback

Feedback is important so:

good actions are reinfornced / bad actions are prevented / know how to improve / motivation / confidence

Intrinsic // kinaesthesis / info from internal sources / autonomous learners

Extrinsic // senses / info from external sources / cognitive/assosiative/autonomous learners

Terminal // feeback at end of performance / cognitive to not confuse them

Concurrent // feedback during performance / autonomous learners / bad for cognitive

Positive // feedback of what you did well / cognitive for confidence

Negative // feedback of what you did wrong / cognitive and autonomous

Knowledge of Results // feedback of the outcome / cognitive for confidence

Knowledge of Performance // feedback of how you performed / autonomous to fix errors

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Schema Theory

Schema; a building block of knowledge that can be adapted as we meet new situations and through practise. (generalised series of movements in the LTM) eg catching a ball.


Recall Schema: Used Stored Information about production and initiation of movement

1) Initial Knowledge of Conditions (environment) // its windy

2) Knowledge of Response Specifications (decided how to respond) // pass short not long

Recognition Schema: control the movement and form an evaluation

3) Knowledge of Sensory Consequence (Intrinsic) // you feel the pass went well

4) Knowledge of Outcome (extrinsic) // you see the ball arrive to your teamates hand.

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Drive Reduction Theory

MOTIVATION is the drive to succeed. Intrinsic is when you participate for your own sake eg fitness and Extrinsic is where you participate for material gain eg medals and money.

D/R/T is when you lose motivation.

Desire To Learn: want to learn a new skill eg want to lose weight

Drive to Fulfil: doing something to fulfil eg going to the gym

Learning Accomplished: learnt to do it eg you've lost the weight

Drive to Continue Reduced: you get bored eg you don't go to the gym

Set New Goals: set new goals to have the drive again eg lose more weight

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Arousal is how psyched up you are

Drive Theory: as arousal increases so does performance. experts = C/D/R  / novices = I/D/R

Inverted U: as arousal increases so does performance until the optimum point. some activities require low arousal and a higher level of skill can cope with higher levels of arousal.

Catastrophe: as arousal increases there is a sudden drop in performance due to demantic or cognitive anxieties.

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Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning

Operant (Skinner); Trial and Error (react/respond to stimulus) / Manipulate Environment (remove stimulius eg a target) / Give Reinforcement (when correct/incorrect repsonse) / Shape Behaviour (change your behaviour and SR bond eg shoot at different parts of the goal)

Throndike: Law of Effect (reinforcement strengthens S-R bond) / Law of Exercise (practise strengthens SR bond) / Law of Readiness (have to be physically capable of skill to create and strengthen SR bond)

Cognitive (Gestalt); Not Trial and Error but past experiences through problem solving.

Wholeness: solve the problem in it entirety.

Understanding: Understand the problem

Intervening Variables: Desicion Making (SR Bond). Insight Learning (past experiences solve new problems)

eg understand not to eat unhealthily and past experiences of losing weight helps learn.

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Bandura: Imitation of Role Models is important in learning behavour (usually same age/gender)

ATTENTION; we pay attention to a demonstration of a model eg we see Ronaldo take a free kick.

RETENTION; the image must be stored in our memory for it to be copied correctly so demo needs to be repeated. verbal guidance helps. eg we retain an image of Ronaldo taking a free kick

MOTOR REPRODUCTION; we must be physically able to replicate skill eg we must be able to kick the ball a certain distance to replicate Ronaldo's free kick

MOTIVATION; must have the drive to want to learn the skill (reinforcement) eg we must want to be able to take a free kick like Ronaldo.

MATCHING PERFORMANCE; we actually go and copy the demonstration eg we copy the free kick

(BAHL- we see a celebrity has lost weight, we retain this image, we are able to lose weight and we want to lose weight so we will copy the model and lose weight.)

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POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT; is the gaining of a pleasant stimulus (a satisfier) after the correct action was performed to strengthen the SR bond eg praise after scoring in netball.

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT; is the removal of an unpleasant (noxious) stimulus after the correct action was performed to strengthen the SR bond eg your netball coach stops shouting after you start to play better

PUNISHMENT; is the gaining of an unpleasant (noxious) stimulus after the incorrect action was performed to break the bond between stimulus and response eg a red card after a dangerous tackle

BAHL- you are positvely inforced when you lose weigh as you gain the pleasant stimulus of feeling good or compliments so the SR bond is strengthened.

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POSITIVE // learning one skill makes transfer to another easier eg a pass in netball helps the learning of a pass in basketball

NEGATIVE // learning one skill makes transfer to another harder eg shooting in basketball makes learning the skill of shooting in netball harder (no backboard)

PROACTIVE // learning a new skill is affected by the learning of a skill in the past eg being able to throw a ball in rounders means you can throw a ball in cricket easier

RETROACTIVE // learning a new skill affects an old skill eg by learning how to shoot in basketball, when you go back to shooting in netball you can't shoot

BILATERAL // learning of a skill on one side of the body means it can be transferred to the other eg being able to throw a tennis ball with your right hand means you can throw it easier with your left

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