this is settlements

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The site of a settlement is the physical land on which a settlement is built.

There are many factors which influence choice of site, for example;

- Water supply - all settlements need water but need to avoid flooding (places which are built near water are called wet point sites and places which are built to avoid water are called dry point sites

- Aspect and shelter - In the northern hemisphere the south-facing slopes are warmer than the north facing slopes

- Defence - settlements were often built high on hill sides or close to rivers in order to defend themselves against attack

- Food supply - Early people needed to grow their own food so would need to locate on fertile soil

- Communications - All settlements need to be ideally located near to roads, at gaps in a hill or a bridging point

- Building materials and fuel supply - Early settlements were often sited near woodlands so that people had access to wood for building materials and a fuel supply

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counter urbanisation

Push Factors (reasons for the movement away from cities)
- higher rates of congestion and pollution
- high land values making it harder for people to find affordable housing
- higher crime rates

Pull Factors (reasons for movements to the countryside)
- perceived better quality of life
- believed to be a safer and more pleasant environment for children to grow up in
- less pollution and more open space
- lower land-values and more affordable housing
- more businesses locating on greenfield sites to make the most of room for expansion and the more pleasant environment.

Improvements in transports and technology have led to the increase in counterurbanisation as it has become easier for people to commute to work or indeed work remotely from home, using internet / fax / e-mail technology.

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The process of counterurbanisation has had a number of consequences and in particular has resulted in the changing characteristics of many villages which have seen an increase in population becoming more suburbanised in character. These suburbanised villages have seen various changes as people have moved in from the city. Many have lost some of their rural characteristics as new housing developments have been built and in some instances business units have developed. Village shops and local services often suffer as these settlements often become "dormitory villages", where a large proportion of the population commute to work leaving a small daytime population. Many commuters use large supermarkets on the edge of towns and the lower demand for villages shops and services has forced many to close. There are also social impacts, as once tight-knit communities begin to lose community spirit as more and more people move in.

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th increased movement of people / services from the center inner urban areas to the edges of the built up area RURAL URBAN FRINGE

1800 - 1900 urban areas started to get built up with industrys moving in - workhouses were created to house and work lower classes, middle classes then started moving into the suburbs for a better life

suburbanisation continued rapidly until the war period, during this time there were little planning permissions so developers started building in a 'ribbon effect' this is where houses were built along main routes joining cities together.

causes of suburbanisation are such as - de centralisation shift of jobs into the service sector and cheaper land prices in suburban areas, De - industrialisation loss of manufacturing jobs in the inner cities, workers often lacked jobs in service sectors, inner cities experienced spiralling problems

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Re- Urbanisation

Birmingham in the west midlands experienced spiralling effects in the early 21st century from thn on the increase residency and class onf the city they 're urbanised' the city whic is developing on land which has already once been used

from this they built

- bullring                           - new street station, moor streets and snow hill

- mailbox                           (

- the cabe

- symphony hall

- icc

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St Ives cambridgeshire

65m North of London

Lies on the A1123 just of the A14 which links St Ives with Cambridge and provides access to the A1 which is a road straight into London.

Regular trains make the access to the cities of Cambridge and London very easy.


 The population structures of the town are changing from a once ageing village to a number of young people in the area.

A large proportion of the people are working outside of the town 25% of St Ives population commute to London every day.  There have been a considerable number of new housing developments around the periphery of St Ives. There has been an increase in new exclusive apartments in and around the town and particularly along the river Ouse. People in St Ives have a higher income compared to the rest of the UK with higher incomes they can afford the higher travel costs to London, which may be for petrol or train fares.

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 Increasing demand for riverside apartments as a result of a large percentage of people wanting to retire to St Ives

  There is an increasing proportion of people who can afford the rising cost of property (commuters) and the people who work on the farms, part time wages or training schemes. There is some resistance to the building of more homes from the local residents, but many of these do not want their newly chosen environment changed

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