Science Biology

GCSE revision card for science

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  • Created by: stephanie
  • Created on: 15-06-10 10:37

Inside living cells

Genetic Information

DNA is made up of four different bases- THYMINE, GUANINE, ADENINE and CYTOSINE. You can remember the pairs they are in by remembering (Always Together Good Company)

Sections of DNA called Genes code for specific Proteins. These result in certain traits.

Protins are made up of Amino Acids. There are many different types of amino acids. The order and type determines the structure and type of protein produced.

Each amino acid is coded for by three bases. If one of these bases is mutated, this can result in the incorrect amino acid being coded for and consequently the wrong protein being made. This is know as a Mutation.

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Inside Living Cells

Genes

Section of DNA which code for certain CHARATERISTICS.

Through the human genome project, we have identified all the genes found on all 23 pairs of CHROMOSOMES.

Using special ENZYMES, we are also able to 'CUT OUT' useful genes and place them into a virus.

We can then use this virus to infect bacteria cells.

The new gene is incorporated into the bacteria cell which now produces the protein coded for by the gene.

Bacteria are grown in FORMENTERS. With ideal conditions, the maxamum amount of product can be made.

We can use this method to create useful drugs. For example, we can use it to make the protein insulin.

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Inside Living Cells

Organelles

RIBOSOMES are ORGANELLES found within cells.

Ribosmomes produce the specific proteins which the DNA code for.

DNA is unravelled.

mRNA is made (A single standered copy of the DNA)

mRNA leaves the necleause and is engulfed by a ribosome in the CYTOPLASM.

Every three BASES (CODON) code for one specific AMINO ACID.

Many amino acids join together to make a protein.

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Inside Living Cells

Aerobic And Anaerobic

RESPIRATION is a chemical reaction that happenes in all cells.

In the body cells, OXYGEN reacts with GLUCOSE in a reaction called AEROBIC RESPIRATION, CARBON DIOXIDE and ENERGY are made.

When exercising hard, the breathing and heart rate must increase so more oxygen can be transproted around the body.

if insufficient oxygen reaches the cells, ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION occurs. LACTIC ACID and energy are made.

Anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic.

After anaerobic respiration, the body must repay the OXYGEN DEBT accummlated.

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Comments

Saran

  • This is very helpfull thank you to any that made this
  • but there are some information that is missing
  • but over all it is good for quick revision
  • thank you

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