# Science

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## What is meant by "work"?

When an object is moved by a force, we say work is done on the object by the force. The force therefore transfers energy to the object.

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## What is the equation for work done?

work done = force applied x distance moved in the direction of the force

(J)                  (N)                                           (M)

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## What is the spring constant equal to?

It is equal to the force per unit extension needed to extend the spring, assuming it's limit of proportionality is not reached. The stiffer a spring is, the greater it's spring constant is.

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## What is the equation for the force applied?

force applied = spring constant x extension

(N)                     (N/M)                (M)

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## What is Hookes Law?

The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the force applied, provided it's limit of proportionality is NOT exceeded.

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## What is the equation for the extension of the stri

the extension of the ***** of material at any stage = it's length at the stage - it's original length

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## Elastic object properties

An elastic object regains its original shape when the forces deforming it are removed.

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## What affects stopping distances?

• Tiredness, alcohol and drugs
• The speed that the vehicle is travelling
• Poorly maintained vehicles
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## What is the equation for thinking distance?

speed x reaction time

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## Formula Triangle

F (N)

M (kg)             A (m/s2)

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## What is the equation for stopping distance?

thinking distance + braking distance

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## What is braking distance?

The distance travelled by the vehicle during the time the braking force acts.

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## What is thinking distance?

The distance travelled by the vehicle during the time the braking force acts.

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## What is the equation for acceleration?

acceleration (m/s2) = change in velocity (m/s) / time taken for change (s)

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10N/kg

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## What is the equation for weight?

weight = mass x gravitational field strength

(N)        (kg)                   (N/kg)

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## What is terminal velocity?

The maximum speed we can reach when falling. This is where the force acting downwards equals the force acting upwards.

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## What is resultant force?

A single force that has the same effect as all the forces acting on an object.

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## What is velocity?

The speed of that objcet in a particular direction.

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## What is the equation for speed?

speed = distance / time

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